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Abbreviations

Most abbreviations of series, handbooks and journals used in this database are according to: The SBL Handbook of Style: for Biblical Studies and Related Disciplines, Atlanta, GA: SBL Press, 22014.

Abbreviations Biblical Books

Hebrew Bible
Gen Genesis Mic Micah
Exod Exodus Nah Nahum
Lev Leviticus Hab Habakkuk
Num Numeri Zeph Zephaniah
Deut Deuteronomy Hag Haggai
Josh Joshua Zech Zechariah
Judg Judges Mal Malachi
1-2 Sam 1-2 Samuel Ps Psalm(s)
1-2 Kgdms 1-2 Kingdoms (LXX) Job Job
1-2 Kgs 1-2 Kings Prov Proverbs
3-4 Kgdms 3-4 Kingdoms (LXX) Ruth Ruth
Isa Isaiah Cant/Song Canticles/Song of Songs
Jer Jeremiah Eccl/Qoh Ecclesiastes/Qohelet
Ezek Ezekiel Lam Lamentations
Hos Hosea Est Esther
Joel Joel Dan Daniel
Amos Amos Ezra           Ezra
Obad           Obadiah                             Neh Nehemiah
Jon Jonah 1-2 Chron 1-2 Chronicles
Deuterocanonical and Pseudepigraphical Literature
AddDan       Additions to Daniel                 Jdt Judith
PrAzar Prayer of Azariah Jub Jubilees
Bel Bel and the Dragon 1-4 Macc 1-4 Maccabees
SgThree Song of the 3 Young Men Odes Odes of Solomon
Sus Susanna PrMan Prayer of Manasseh
AddEst Additions to Esther PssSol        Psalms of Solomon
Bar Baruch Sir Ben Sira/ Ecclesiasticus  
1-2 Esd Esdras Tob Tobit
EpJer Epistle of Jeremiah Wis Wisdom of Solomon
New Testament
Matt           Matthew 1-2 Thess 1-2  Thessalonians
Mark Mark 1-2 Tim 1-2 Timothy
Luke Luke Tit Titus
John John Phlm        Philemon
Acts Acts Heb Hebrews
Rom Romans Jas James
1-2 Cor 1-2 Corinthians 1-2 Pet 1-2 Peter
Gal Galatians 1-3 John 1-3 John
Eph Ephesians Jude Jude
Phil Philippians                          Rev         Revelation                      
Col Colossians

Abbreviations for the Versions

αʹ Aquila Tg(s) Targum(s)
θʹ Theodotion TgFrg Fragment Targums
σʹ Symmachus TgJ        Targum Jonathan
CGen           Cairo Geniza TgK Targum of the Ketubim
LXX Septuagint TgN Targum Neofiti
LXXa Codex Alexandrinus TgO Targum Onqelos         
LXXAnt Antiochene text of LXX1 TgPsJ Targum Pseudo-Jonathan
LXXb Codex Vaticanus TgSmr Targum SP
LXXs Codex Sinaiticus TgSmr1 TgSmr, version 12
MT Masoretic Text TgSmr2 TgSmr, version 2
Pesh Peshitta Vg Vulgate
Qum Texts Judean Desert/ Qumran VgPsG Vg, Gallican Psalter3
SP Samaritan Pentateuch VgPsH Vg, Hebrew Psalter4
Syh Syrohexapla

1 Also known as LXXL (Lucianic recension).

2 For the differentiation between versions 1 and 2 of TgSmr see THB 1A:235-38, 239-62.

3 Vulg.PsG= Psalmi iuxta Septuaginta emendati= ‘Ga’ in BHS and BHQ.

4 Vulg.PsH= Psalmi iuxta Hebraicum translati= ‘Hier’ in BHS-Psalms; ‘Hbrs’ in BHQ.

General abbreviations

act. active LN(N) locative name(s)
adj. adjective loc. locative
Akk. Akkadian masc. masculine
Amor. Amorite MHeb. Middle Hebrew
ANE Ancient Near East m.pl. masc.plural
Arab. Arabic m.sg. masc.singular
Aram. Aramaic ms(s) manuscript(s)
Assyr. Assyrian n.d. no date
Bab. Babylonian neg. negative, negation
BAram. Biblical Aramaic n.f. feminine noun
BHeb. Biblical Hebrew niph. niphʿal
Can. Canaanite n.m. masculin noun
cstr. constructus NN nomen nescio, name unknown
deriv. derivative n(n). note(s)
det. determinative nom. nominative
DN(N) divine name(s) NS new series
E Elohist source NT New Testament
Eg. Egyptian OAram. old Aramaic
EHeb. epigraphical Hebrew OSArab. old south Arabic
ESArab epigraphical south Arabic OT Old Testament
ET English translation P Priestly source
Eth. Ethiopic part. participle
fem. feminine pass. passive
f.pl. fem.plural PBHeb. Postbiblical Hebrew
f.sg. fem.singular pers. person
frag. fragment pf./perf. perfective
FS Festschrift Phoen. Phoenician
GN(N) geographical name(s) pi. piʿel
Gk. Greek pl. plural
HB Hebrew Bible PN(N) personal name(s)
Heb. Hebrew prep. preposition, prepositional
hiph. hiphʿil pron. pronoun
hithp. hithpaʿel pu. puʿal
Hitt. Hittite Q Qere
hoph. hophʿal s.a. sine anno
Hur. Hurrian Sam. Samaritan
impv. imperative Sem. Semitic
impf. imperfective sf. suffix
inf.abs. infinitive absolute sg. singular
inf.cstr. infinitive construct Soq. Soqotri
intrans. intransitive subst. substantive, substantival
J Yahwist source Sum. Sumerian
JAram. Jewish Aramaic s.v. sub voce
K Ketib Syr. Syriac
LBHeb. late biblical Hebrew TN(N) tribal name(s)
l(l). line(s) Ug. Ugaritic
LMHeb. late Hebrew (mishnaic) vb. verb

Bibliographical Abbreviations

A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   R   S   T   U   V   W   Z

A.

AALA
Adolf Erman & Hermann Ranke, Aegypten und aegyptisches Leben im Altertum, Tübingen 1922-23
AASF
Annales Academiæ Scientiarum Fennicæ (Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia)
AB
The Anchor Bible (Garden City/New York: Doubleday)
ABD
David N. Freedman (ed.), The Anchor Bible Dictionary, New York 1992
AbrN (later: ANES)
Abr-Nahrain: an Annual under the Auspices of the Department of Semitic Studies, University of Melbourne (Leiden: Brill; Leuven: Peeters)
AbrNSup (later: ANESSup)
Abr-Nahrain Supplements (Leuven: Peeters)
ACEBT
Amsterdamse Cahiers voor Exegese van de Bijbel en zijn Tradities (Kampen: Kok/Bergambacht [NL]: 2VM Uitgeverij)
ACEBT.SS
Amsterdamse Cahiers voor Exegese van de Bijbel en zijn Tradities (Supplement Series) (Kampen: Kok; Bergambacht [NL]: 2VM Uitgeverij)
ADE
Bezalel Porten & Jerome A. Lund, Aramaic Documents from Egypt: A Key-Word-in-Context Concordance (CALP, 1), Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns 2002
ADPV
Abhandlungen des Deutschen Palästinavereins (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz)
Adrados, DGE
Francisco R. Adrados (ed.), Diccionario Griego-Español, Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) - Instituto de Filología, 1980-
AEAD
Simo Parpola et al. (eds.), Assyrian-English-Assyrian Dictionary, Helsinki 2007
ÄAT
Ägypten und Altes Testament (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz)
AEMI
Alfred Lucas & John R. Harris, Ancient Egyptian Materials and Industries, London 1962
AEMT
Paul T. Nicholson, Ian Shaw, & Fekri A. Hassan (eds.), Ancient Egyptian Materials and Technology, Cambridge 2000
AFBBK
Heinrich Zimmern, Akkadische Fremdwörter als Beweis für babylonischen Kultureinfluss, Leipzig 21917
AFT
Robert I. Curtis, Ancient Food Technology (Technology and Change in History, 5), Leiden: Brill, 2001
AGJU
Arbeiten zur Geschichte des antiken Judentums und des Urchristentums (Leiden: Brill)
AHI-1
Graham I. Davies, Ancient Hebrew Inscriptions: Corpus and Concordance, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991
AHI-2
Graham I. Davies, Ancient Hebrew Inscriptions: Corpus and Concordance, vol. 2, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004
AHw
Wolfram von Soden, Akkadisches Handwörterbuch, 3 vols., Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1965-81
AIAI
Oded Borowski, Agriculture in Iron Age Israel, Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1987 (repr. Boston 2002)
ALBH
Paul V. Mankowski, Akkadian Loanwords in Biblical Hebrew (HSS, 47), Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2000
ALCBH
Hayim b.Y. Tawil, An Akkadian Lexical Companion for Biblical Hebrew: Etymological-Semantic and Idiomatic Equivalents with Supplement on Biblical Aramaic, Jersey City: KTAV Publishing House, 2009
AMMI
Peter R.S. Moorey, Ancient Mesopotamian Materials and Industries: The Archaeological Evidence, Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1999
ANEP
James B. Pritchard (ed.), The Ancient Near East in Pictures Relating to the Old Testament, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 21969
ANES (formerly: AbrN)
Ancient Near Eastern Studies (Leuven: Peeters)
ANESSup (formerly: AbrNSup)
Ancient Near Eastern Studies Supplements Series (Leuven: Peeters)
ANET
James B. Pritchard (ed.), Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 31969
ArBib
The Aramaic Bible: The Targums (Edinburgh: T&T Clark; Collegeville MN: Liturgical Press)
ASTI
Annual of the Swedish Theological Institute (Leiden: Brill)
ASV
American Standard Version (1901)
ATD
Das Alte Testament Deutsch: Neues Göttinger Bibelwerk (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht)
ATTM
Klaus Beyer, Die aramäischen Texte vom Toten Meer: samt den Inschriften aus Palästina, dem Testament Levis aus der Kairoer Genisa, der Fastenrolle und den alten talmudischen Zitaten; aramaistische Einleitung, Text, Übersetzung, Deutung, Grammatik/Wörterbuch, deutsch-aramäische Wortliste, Register, 2 vols., mit Erg.B., Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1984.
AuOr
Aula orientalis: Revista de Estudios del Próximo Oriente Antiguo (Barcelona: Editorial AUSA)
Avitzur
Shmuel Avitzur, אדם ועמלו׃ אטלס לתולדות כלי עבודה ומיתקני ייצור בארץ־ישראל (Man and his Work, Historical Atlas of Tools and Workshops in the Holy Land), Jerusalem: Carta, 1976

B.

BA
The Biblical Archaeologist (New Haven, CT/Atlanta, GA: Scholars Press)
BAR
Biblical Archaeology Review (Washington: Biblical Archaeology Society)
BÄV
Wolfgang Helck, Die Beziehungen Ägyptens zu Vorderasien im 3. und 2. Jahrtausend v. Chr. (ÄAT, 5), Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 21971
Barthélemy
Adrien Barthélemy, Dictionnaire arabe-français - Dialectes de Syrie: Alep, Damas, Liban, Jérusalem, Paris 1935-69
BDB
Francis Brown, Samuel R. Driver & Charles A. Briggs, A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament, Oxford 1907
Beentjes, BBSH
Pancratius C. Beentjes, The Book of Ben Sira in Hebrew: A Text Edition of all Extant Hebrew Manuscripts and a Synopsis of all Parallel Hebrew Ben Sira Texts (VTS, 68), Leiden: Brill 1997
BHH
Bo Reicke & Leonhard Rost (eds.), Biblisch-historisches Handwörterbuch, 4 vols., Göttingen 1962-79
BHK
Biblia Hebraica, (ed. R. Kittel; Leipzig: Hinrichs, 11905-06; Stuttgart: Württembergische Bibelanstalt, 21909-13; 31929-37).
BHL
Chaim R. Cohen, Biblical Hapax Legomena in the Light of Akkadian and Ugaritic (SBL.DS, 37), Missoula 1978
BHQ
Adrian Schenker et al. (eds.), Biblia Hebraica Quinta editione cum apparatu critico novis curis elaborato, Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2004-
BHQ 1
Biblia Hebraica Quinta editione cum apparatu critico novis curis elaborato, Fascicle 1: Genesis, prep. by Abraham Tal, Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2015
BHQ 3
Biblia Hebraica Quinta editione cum apparatu critico novis curis elaborato, Fascicle 3: Leviticus, prep. by Innocent Himbaza, Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2020
BHQ 5
Biblia Hebraica Quinta editione cum apparatu critico novis curis elaborato, Fascicle 5: Deuteronomy, prep. by Carmel McCarthy, Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2007g
BHQ 7
Biblia Hebraica Quinta editione cum apparatu critico novis curis elaborato, Fascicle 7: Judges, prep. by Natalio Fernández Marcos, Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2011
BHQ 13
Biblia Hebraica Quinta editione cum apparatu critico novis curis elaborato, Fascicle 13: The Twelve Minor Prophets, prep. by Anthony Gelston, Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2010
BHQ 16
Biblia Hebraica Quinta editione cum apparatu critico novis curis elaborato, Fascicle 16: Job, prep. by Robert Althann, Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2024
BHQ 17
Biblia Hebraica Quinta editione cum apparatu critico novis curis elaborato, Fascicle 17: Proverbs, prep. by Jan de Waard, Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2008
BHQ 18
Biblia Hebraica Quinta editione cum apparatu critico novis curis elaborato, Fascicle 18: General Introduction and Megiloth, prep. by Jan de Waard, Peter B. Dirksen, Yonathan A.P. Goldman, Rolf Schäfer, and Magne Sæbø, Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2004
BHQ 20
Biblia Hebraica Quinta editione cum apparatu critico novis curis elaborato, Fascicle 20: Ezra and Nehemiah, prep. by David Marcus, Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2006
BHS
Karl Elliger & Wilhelm Rudolph (eds.), Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia, Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1967-77
BiA
Alexander Sperber, The Bible in Aramaic Based on Old Manuscripts and Printed Texts (4 vols), Leiden: Brill, 1959-68
Bib
Biblica (Rome: Pontificial Biblical Institute; Leuven: Peeters)
BibInt
Biblical Interpretation (Leiden: Brill)
BibInt.S
Biblical Interpretation Series (Leiden: Brill)
BibOr
Biblica et Orientalia (Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute)
BJS
Brown Judaic Studies (Atlanta, GA: SBL Press)
BJSUCSD
Biblical and Judaic Studies from the University of California, San Diego (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns)
BKAT
Biblischer Kommentar Altes TesTestamenttament (Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht)
BL
Hans Bauer & Pontus Leander, Historische Grammatik der hebräischen Sprache des Alten Testamentes, Halle a.S.: Niemeyer, 1922 (repr. Hildesheim: Olms, 1965)
BNP
Hubert Cançik et al. (eds.), Brill’s New Pauly: Encyclopaedia of the Ancient World, vol. 1-, Leiden: Brill, 2002-
BOT
De Boeken van het Oude Testament (Roermond: Romen)
BRL2
Kurt Galling, Biblisches Reallexikon (HAT 1/1), Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 21977
BTG
Walter Sallaberger, Der babylonische Töpfer und seine Gefässe nach Urkunden altsumerischer bis altbabylonischer Zeit sowie lexikalischen und literarischen Zeugnissen (Mesopotamian History and Environment, Ser. II, Memoirs, 3), Ghent 1996
Busink
Theodor A. Busink, Der Tempel von Jerusalem von Salomo bis Herodes: Eine archäologisch-historische Studie unter Berücksichtigung des westsemitischen Tempelbaus, 2 vols., Leiden: Brill, 1970-80
BZAW
Beihefte zur Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft (Berlin: De Gruyter)

C.

CAD
The Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, vol. 1-, Chicago: The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, 1956-
CAL
Stephen A. Kaufman, et al., The Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon (https://cal.huc.edu)
CAmhD
Wolf Leslau, Concise Amharic Dictionary, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976
CBC
Cambridge Bible Commentary (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)
CBCE
John Jarick (ed.), A Comprehensive Bilingual Concordance of the Hebrew and Greek Texts of Ecclesiastes (SCSt, 36), Atlanta, GA: Scholars Press, 1993
CBET
Contributions to Biblical Exegesis and Theology (Kampen: Kok/ Leuven: Peeters)
CBQ
Catholic Biblical Quarterly (Washington: The Catholic Biblical Association of America)
CBQMS
Catholic Biblical Quarterly Monograph Series (Washington: The Catholic Biblical Association of America)
CD
Walter E. Crum, A Coptic Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon, 1939 (repr. Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock, 1999)
CDCH
David J.A. Clines, The Concise Dictionary of Classical Hebrew, Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix, 2009
CDG
Wolf Leslau, Comparative Dictionary of Geʿez (Classical Ethiopic), Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1987 (repr. 1991)
CEDHL
Ernest Klein, A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the Hebrew Language for Readers of English, Jerusalem: Carta, 1987
CHALOT
William L. Holladay, A Concise Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament, Leiden: Brill, 1971
COS
William W. Hallo & K. Lawson Younger (eds.), The Context of Scripture, 4 vols., Leiden: Brill, 1997-2016
COuT
Commentaar op het Oude Testament (Kampen: Kok)
CTAT 1
Dominique Barthélemy, Critique Textuelle de l’Ancient Testament, Vol. 1: Josué-Esther (OBO, 50/1), Fribourg: Éditions Universitaires/Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1982
CTAT 2
Dominique Barthélemy, Critique Textuelle de l’Ancient Testament, Vol. 2: Isaïe, Jérémie, Lamentations (OBO, 50/2), Fribourg: Éditions Universitaires/Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1986
CTAT 3
Dominique Barthélemy, Critique Textuelle de l’Ancient Testament, Vol. 3: Ézéchiel, Daniel et les 12 Prophètes(OBO,50/3), Fribourg: Éditions Universitaires; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1992
CTAT 4
Dominique Barthélemy, Critique Textuelle de l’Ancient Testament, Vol. 4: Psaumes (OBO,50/4), Fribourg:Éditions Universitaires/Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2005
CTAT 5
Dominique Barthélemy, Critique Textuelle de l’Ancient Testament, Vol.5: Job, Proverbes, Qohélet et Cantique des Cantiques (OBO, 50/5), Fribourg: Éditions Universitaires/Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2016
CTH
Emmanuel Laroche, Catalogue des textes hittites, Paris: Klincksieck, 1971
CVOT
James L. Kelso, The Ceramic Vocabulary of the Old Testament (BASOR.S, 5-6), New Haven, CT: American Schools of Oriental Research, 1948

D.

DAC
Rudolphe Kasser, Dictionnaire auxiliaire, étymologique et complet de la langue copte, fasc. 1-, Genève: Écrits et idiomes de l’Égypte et du Proche-Orient, 1967-
DAF
Albin de Biberstein Kazimirski, Dictionnaire arabe-français, 2 vols., Beyrouth: Librairie du Liban, 1860
DAFA
Régis Blachère et al., Al-Kâmil: Dictionnaire arabe-français-anglais, vol. 1-, Paris: G.-P. Maisonneuve et Larose, 1967-
Dalman, ANHT
Gustaf Dalman, Aramäisch-neuhebräisches Handwörterbuch zu Targum, Talmud und Midrasch, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 31938 (repr. Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1987)
Dalman, AuS
Gustaf Dalman, Arbeit und Sitte in Palästina, Bd. 1-7, Gütersloh: Bertelsmann, 1928-42; Bd. 8, mit Gesamtregister für die Bände I-VIII, Berlin: De Gruyter, 2001
DAPP
Yohanan Elihai, Dictionnaire de l’Arabe parlé palestinien: Français-Arabe, Paris: Klincksieck, 31985
DB
Fulcran Vigouroux (ed.), Dictionnaire de la Bible, 5 vols., Paris: Letouzey et Ané, 31926-28
DBHast
James Hastings et al. (eds.), A Dictionary of the Bible, 4 vols., Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1889-1902
DBHE
Luis Alonso Schökel (ed.), Diccionario Bíblico Hebreo-Español, Valencia: Institución San Jerónimo; Madrid: Editorial Trotta, 1990-94
DBImag
Leland Ryken et al. (eds.), Dictionary of Biblical Imagery, Downers Grove, IL: Inter Varsity Press, 1998
DB.S
Louis Pirot et al. (eds.), Dictionnaire de la Bible: Supplément, t. 1-, Paris: Letouzey et Ané, 1928-
DCH
David J.A. Clines (ed.), The Dictionary of Classical Hebrew, vol.1-5, Sheffield: Sheffield Academic 1993-2001; vol.6-9, Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix, 2007-16
DCHR
David J.A. Clines (ed.), The Dictionary of Classical Hebrew Revised, vol.1– , Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix, 2018–
DDD
Karel van der Toorn et al. (eds.), Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible, Leiden: Brill, 1995
DDD 2
Karel van der Toorn et al. (eds.), Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible, 2nd ed., Leiden: Brill/Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1999
De Vaux, IAT
Roland de Vaux, Les institutions de l’Ancien Testament, 2 vols., Paris: Du Cerf, 1958-60
DJD
Discoveries in the Judaean Desert (Oxford: Clarendon)
DLU
Gregorio del Olmo Lete & Joaquín Sanmartín, Diccionario de la lengua ugarítica (Aula Orientalis, Supplementa, 7-8), Barcelona: Editorial AUSA, 1996-2000
DNP
Hubert Cançik et al. (eds.), Der Neue Pauly: Enzyklopädie der Antike, 16 vols., Stuttgart: J.B. Metzler 1996-2003
DNWSI
Jacob Hoftijzer & Karel Jongeling, Dictionary of the North-West Semitic Inscriptions, 2 vols. (HdO, 21), Leiden: Brill, 1995
DOSA
Joan Copeland Biella, Dictionary of Old South Arabic: Sabaean Dialect, Chico, CA: Scholars Press, 1982 (repr. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2004)
DPASyr
Claude Denizeau, Dictionnaire des parlers arabes de Syrie, Liban et Palestine (Études Arabes et Islamiques. Série 3, Études et Documents, 3), Paris: Maisonneuve, 1960
DRS
David Cohen et al., Dictionnaire des racines sémitiques, Fasc.1-, Paris: Mouton; Leuven: Peeters, 1970-
DSF
Louis Costaz, Dictionnaire Syriaque-Français, Beyrouth: Dar El-Machreq, 32002
DSS.SE
Florentino García Martínez & Eibert J.C. Tigchelaar, The Dead Sea Scrolls Study Edition, 2 vols., Leiden: Brill, 1997-98 (Leiden: Brill/Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2000)
DULAT1
Gregorio del Olmo Lete & Joaquín Sanmartín, A Dictionary of the Ugaritic Language in the Alphabetic Tradition (HdO, 67), transl. Wilfred G.E. Watson, 2 vols., Leiden: Brill, 2003
DULAT3
Gregorio del Olmo Lete & Joaquín Sanmartín, A Dictionary of the Ugaritic Language in the Alphabetic Tradition (HdO, 112), transl. Wilfred G.E. Watson, 2 vols., Leiden: Brill, 32015

E.

EFP
Shmuel Aḥituv, Echoes from the Past: Hebrew and Cognate Inscriptions from the Biblical Period, Jerusalem: Carta, 2008
EHIH
Elmar Camilo dos Santos, An Expanded Hebrew Index for Hatch-Redpath Concordance to the Septuagint, Jerusalem: Dugith Publishers, [1973]
EncB
Thomas K. Cheyne & John Sutherland Black (eds.), Encyclopaedia Biblica, 4 vols., London: Black, 1899-1907
EncM
Eleazar L. Sukenik & Umberto Cassuto (eds.), אנציקלופדיה מקראית: אוצר הידיעות על המקרא ותקופתו (Biblical Encyclopaedia: Thesaurus of the Bible and its Periods), 9 vols., Jerusalem: Mosad Bialik; Hebrew University Jerusalem, 1950-88
ESAC
Wolf Leslau, Ethiopic and South Arabic Contributions to the Hebrew Lexicon (UCPSP, 20), Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1958

F.

FB
Forschung zur Bibel (Würzburg: Echter)
Feasting
Peter Altmann & Janling Fu (eds.), Feasting in the Archaeology and Texts of the Bible and the Ancient Near East, Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2014
FHAWAT
Georg Fohrer et al., Hebräisches und aramäisches Wörterbuch zum Alten Testament, Berlin: De Gruyter, 1971
FieldI
Frederick Field, Origenis Hexaplorum quae supersunt sive Veterum interpretum graecorum in totum Vetus Testamentum fragmenta, tomus I: Prolegomena, Genesis – Esther, Oxford: Clarendon, 1875
FieldII
Frederick Field, Origenis Hexaplorum quae supersunt sive Veterum interpretum graecorum in totum Vetus Testamentum fragmenta, tomus II: Jobus – Malachias, Auctarium et indices, Oxford: Clarendon, 1875
FWOT
Maximilian Ellenbogen, Foreign Words in the Old Testament: Their Origin and Etymology, London: Luzac, 1962

G.

GB
Wilhelm Gesenius & Frants Buhl, Hebräisches und aramäisches Handwörterbuch über das Alte Testament, Leipzig: Vogel, 171915
GELS
Takamitsu Muraoka, A Greek-English Lexicon of the Septuagint, Louvain: Peeters, 2009
Ges18
Herbert Donner et al. (eds.), Wilhelm Gesenius Hebräisches und Aramäisches Handwörterbuch über das Alte Testament, 18th ed., 6 Lieferungen mit Supplementband, Heidelberg: Springer, 1987-2012
Gesenius, TPC
Wilhelm Gesenius & Emil Rödiger, Thesaurus philologicus criticus lingvae hebraeae et chaldaeae Veteris Testamenti, 3 vols., Leipzig: Vogel, 1835-53
GHAL
Alfred Guillaume, Hebrew and Arabic Lexicography, Leiden: Brill, 1965
GHTIS
Takamitsu Muraoka, A Greek≈Hebrew/Aramaic Two-Way Index to the Septuagint, Louvain: Peeters, 2010
GIAS
Alexandra Avanzini, Glossaire des inscriptions de l’Arabie du Sud 1950-1973 (Quaderni di Semitistica, 3.1/2), 2 vols., Firenze: Ist.di Linguistica e di Lingue Orientali, 1977-80
GK
Wilhelm Gesenius & Emil Kautzsch, Wilhelm Gesenius’ Hebräische Grammatik, Leipzig: Vogel, 281910
GKB
Ursula Verhoeven, Grillen, Kochen, Backen im Alltag und im Ritual Altaägyptens: Ein lexikographischer Beitrag (Rites égyptiens, 4), Bruxelles: Fondation Egyptologique Reine Elisabeth, 1984
GKC
Wilhelm Gesenius, Emil Kautzsch & Arthur E. Cowley, Gesenius’ Hebrew Grammar, Oxford: Clarendon, 21910
GNTB
Good News Translation Bible (1992)

H.

HAAIB
Assaf Yasur-Landau, Laura B. Mazow & Jennie R. Ebeling (eds.), Household Archaeology in Ancient Israel and Beyond (CHANE, 50), Leiden: Brill, 2011
HAE
Johannes Renz & Wolfgang Röllig, Handbuch der althebräischen Epigraphik, 3 vols., Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1995 (vols. I, II/1, III), 2003 (vol.II/2)
HAL (cf. also GHAL)
Ludwig Koehler, Walter Baumgartner & Johann J. Stamm, Hebräisches und aramäisches Lexikon zum Alten Testament, Leiden: Brill, 31967-95
HALOT
Ludwig Koehler, Walter Baumgartner & Johann J. Stamm, The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament, tr. and ed. Mervyn E.J. Richardson, Leiden: Brill, 1994-2000
HAWAT
Eduard König, Hebräisches und aramäisches Wörterbuch zum Alten Testament, Leipzig: Dieterich, 2-31922
HBCE
The Hebrew Bible: A Critical Edition (Atlanta, GA: SBL Press)
HC
David C. Hopkins, The Highlands of Canaan (The Social World of Biblical Antiquity Series, 3), Sheffield: Almond, 1985
HCA
Wolf Leslau, Hebrew Cognates in Amharic, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1969
HCHAT
Julius Fürst & Viktor Ryssel, Hebräisches und chaldäisches Handwörterbuch über das Alte Testament, 2 vols., Leipzig: Tauchnitz, 31876
HCOT
The Historical Commentary on the Old Testament (Kampen: Kok; Leuven: Peeters)
HdO
Handbuch der Orientalistik (Leiden: Brill)
HerBSt
Herders Biblische Studien (Freiburg i.B.: Herder)
HI
Frederick W. Dobbs-Alsopp et al. (eds.), Hebrew Inscriptions: Texts from the Biblical Period of the Monarchy with Concordance, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2004
HIS
Takamitsu Muraoka, Hebrew/Aramaic Index to the Septuagint: Keyed to the Hatch-Redpath Concordance, Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1998
HKAT
Handkommentar zum Alten Testament (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht)
HLBH
Frederick E. Greenspahn, Hapax Legomena in Biblical Hebrew: a Study of the Phenomenon and its Treatment Since Antiquity with Special Reference to Verbal Forms (SBL.DS, 74), Chico, CA: Scholars Press, 1984
HSED
Vladimir E. Orel & Olga V. Stolbova, Hamito-Semitic Etymological Dictionary: Materials for a Reconstruction (HdO, 18), Leiden: Brill, 1995
HRCS1
Edwin Hatch & Henry A. Redpath, A Concordance to the Septuagint and the Other Greek Versions of the Old Testament (Including the Apocryphal Books) Oxford: Clarendon, 1897-1906
HRCS2
Edwin Hatch & Henry A. Redpath, A Concordance to the Septuagint and the Other Greek Versions of the Old Testament (Including the Apocryphal Books), 2nd ed., Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1998
HThKAT
Herders Theologischer Kommentar Zum Alten Testament (Freiburg: Herder)
HTAT
Manfred Weippert, Historisches Textbuch zum Alten Testament (Grundrisse zum Alten Testament, 10), Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2010
HW
Johannes Friedrich & Annelies Kammenhuber, Hethitisches Wörterbuch, vol.1–, Heidelberg: Winter, 21984–
HWAT
Carl Siegfried & Bernhard Stade, Hebräisches Wörterbuch zum Alten Testamente, Leipzig: Veit , 1893

I.

IBC
Interpretation: A Bible Commentary for Teaching and Preaching (Louisville: Westminster John Knox)
IBD
James D. Douglas et al. (eds.), The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, 4 vols., Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press, 1980
IBHS
Bruce K. Waltke & Michael O’Connor, An Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Syntax, Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1990
IBoT
İstanbul Arkeoloji Müzelerinde Bulunan Boğazköy Tabletleri, Istanbul, 1944–
ICC
The International Critical Commentary on the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments (Edinburgh/London: T&T Clark)
IDB
George A. Buttrick (ed.), The Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible: An Illustrated Encyclopedia, 4 vols., Nashville: Abingdon, 1962
IDBSup
Keith Crim (ed.), The Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible: An Illustrated Encyclopedia: Supplementary Volume, Nashville: Abingdon, 1976
IEJ
Israel Exploration Journal (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society)
IOS
Israel Oriental Studies (Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv University; Leiden: Brill)
ISBE
George W. Bromiley (ed.), International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 31979-88

J.

JAEI
Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections (Tucson, AZ: JAEI )
Jastrow, DTT
M. Jastrow, A Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi, and the Midrashic Literature, 2 vols., London: Luzac/New York: Putnam, 1886-1903 (repr. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 2003)
JJS
Journal of Jewish Studies (Oxford: Oxford Centre for Hebrew and Jewish Studies)
JL
Thomas M. Johnstone, Jibbāli Lexicon, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1981
JNSL
Journal of Northwest Semitic Languages (Stellenbosch: University of Stellenbosch)
Joüon, GHB
Paul Joüon, Grammaire de l’hébreu biblique, Rome: Institut Biblique Pontifical, 21947
Joüon-Muraoka, GBH
Paul Joüon & Takamitsu Muraoka, A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew, 2 vols., (SubBi, 14), Roma: Editrice Pontificio Istituto Biblico, 1991
Joüon-Muraoka, GBHrev
Paul Joüon & Takamitsu Muraoka, A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew, rev.ed. (SubBi, 27), Roma: Editrice Pontificio Istituto Biblico, 2006
JSOTSup
Journal for the Study of the Old Testament Supplement Series (Sheffield: JSOT Press/Sheffield Academic)
JSS
Journal of Semitic Studies (Oxford: Oxford University Press)
JTS
Journal of Theological Studies (Oxford: Clarendon; Oxford University Press)

K.

KAHAL
Walter Dietrich & Samuel Arnet (Hrsg.), Konzise und aktualisierte Ausgabe des Hebräischen und Aramäischen Lexikons zum Alten Testament, Leiden: Brill, 2013
KAI
Herbert Donner & Wolfgang Röllig, Kanaanäische und aramäische Inschriften, 3 vols., Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 21966-69
KAT
Kommentar zum Alten Testament (Gütersloh: Mohn)
KBL
Ludwig Koehler & Walter Baumgartner, Lexicon in Veteris Testamenti libros, Leiden: Brill, 1953; Supplementum, Leiden: Brill, 1958
KBS
De Bijbel uit de grondtekst vertaald: Willibrordvertaling, Boxtel: Katholieke Bijbelstichting, 1980
KEHAT
Kurzgefasstes Exegetisches Handbuch zum Alten Testament (Leipzig: Hirzel)
KH
Wolfhart Westendorf, Koptisches Handwörterbuch (bearb. auf Grund des Koptischen Handwörterbuchs von Wilhelm Spiegelberg), Heidelberg: Winter, 1965-77
KHBH
Yehoshua Brand, כלי החרס בספרות התלמוד (Ceramics in Talmudic Literature), Jerusalem: Kook, 1953
KHC
Kurzer Hand-Commentar zum Alten Testament (Freiburg i.Br: Mohr)
KHW
Johannes Friedrich et al., Kurzgefasstes Hethitisches Wörterbuch: Kurzgefasste kritische Sammlung der Deutungen hethitischer Wörter, Heidelberg: Winter, 1952; 1. Ergänzungsheft, Heidelberg: Winter, 1957; 2. Ergänzungsheft, Heidelberg: Winter, 1961; 3. Ergänzungsheft, Heidelberg: Winter, 1966
KJV
King James Version (1611)
KTU
Manfried Dietrich, Oswald Loretz & Joaquín Sanmartín, Die keilalphabetischen Teste aus Ugarit: Einschließlich der keilalphabetischen Texte außerhalb Ugarits, Teil 1: Transkription (AOAT, 24/1), Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener, 1976
KTU2
Manfried Dietrich, Oswald Loretz & Joaquín Sanmartín, The Cuneiform Alphabetic Texts from Ugarit, Ras Ibn Hani and Other Places (KTU: second, enlarged edition; ALASP, 8), Münster: Ugarit, 1995
KTU3
Manfried Dietrich, Oswald Loretz & Joaquín Sanmartín, Die keilalphabetischen Texte aus Ugarit, Ras Ibn Hani und anderen Orten - The Cuneiform Alphabetic Texts from Ugarit, Ras Ibn Hani and Other Places (Third, enlarged edition; AOAT, 360/1), Münster: Ugarit, 2013
KWU
Josef Tropper, Kleines Wörterbuch des Ugaritischen (Elementa Linguarum Orientis, 4), Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2008

L.


Wolfgang Helck, Eberhard Otto & Wolfhart Westendorf (Hrsg.), Lexikon der Ägyptologie, 7 vols., Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1972-92
LAI
Library of Ancient Israel (Louisville: Westminster John Knox)
LAL
Georg W. Freytag, Lexicon Arabico-Latinum, 4 vols., Halis Saxonum: Schwetschke, 1830-37
Lane
Edward W. Lane, An Arabic-English Lexicon, 8 vols., London: Williams and Norgate 1863-93
LBI
Philip J. King & Lawrence E. Stager, Life in Biblical Israel, Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox, 2001
LEH1
Johan Lust, Erik Eynikel & Katrin Hauspie, A Greek-English Lexicon of the Septuagint, 2 vols., Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1992-96
LEH2
Johan Lust, Erik Eynikel & Katrin Hauspie, A Greek-English Lexicon of the Septuagint, Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 22003
Levy, CWT
Jacob Levy, Chaldäisches Wörterbuch über die Targumim und eine grossen Theil des rabbinischen Schriftthums, 2 vols., Leipzig: Baumgärtner’s Buchhandlung, 1867-68
Lewis & Short, LD
Charlton T. Lewis & Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon, 1879 (repr. 2002)
LGA
Max Wagner, Die lexikalischen und grammatikalischen Aramaismen im alttestamentlichen Hebräisch (BZAW, 96), Berlin: De Gruyter, 1966
LIQ
Stephen D. Ricks, Lexicon of Inscriptional Qatabanian, Roma: Editrice Pontificio Istituto Biblico, 1989
LLAe
C.F. August Dillmann & Werner Munzinger, Lexicon linguae aethiopicae, Leipzig: T.O. Weigel, 1865 (repr. New York: Ungar, 1955)
LMHC
Georg B. Winer, Lexicon manuale hebraicum et chaldaicum in Veteris Testamenti libros, Lipsiae: F. Fleischer, 1828
LOPAI
William G. Dever, The Lives of Ordinary People in Ancient Israel: Where Archaeology and the Bible Intersect, Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2012
LSJ
Henry G. Liddell, Robert Scott, & Henry S. Jones, A Greek-English Lexicon, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 91940; Peter G.W. Glare, Revised Supplement, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996
LSoq
Wolf Leslau, Lexique soqotri (sudarabique moderne) avec comparaisons et explications étymologiques (Collection Linguistique, 41), Paris: Klincksieck, 1938
LSU
Wilfred G.E. Watson Lexical Studies in Ugaritic (AuOr.S, 19), Barcelona: Editorial AUSA, 2007
LSyr
Carl Brockelmann, Lexicon Syriacum, Halis Saxonum: Max Niemeyer, 21928
LXX.D
Septuaginta Deutsch
LXX.H
Handbuch zur Septuaginta (Gütersloh: Gütersloher Verlagshaus)

M.

MCB
Ferdinand E. Deist, The Material Culture of the Bible: An Introduction (BiSe, 70), Sheffield: Sheffield Academic, 2000
MD
Ethel S. Drower & Rudolph Macuch, A Mandaic Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon, 1963
Meyer, HG
Rudolf Meyer, Hebräische Grammatik, II: Formenlehre, Flexionstabellen, Berlin, 31969.
MHH
Menachem Z. Kaddari, מילון העברית המקראית: אוצר לשון המקרא מאל״ף עד תי״ו (Dictionary of Biblical Hebrew [Alef-Taw]), Ramat-Gan: Bar Ilan U.P., 2006
ML
Thomas M. Johnstone, Mehri Lexicon and English-Mehri Word-list, London: School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, 1987
MMHB
Cornelis W. Notebaart,Metallurgical Metaphors in the Hebrew Bible (ACEBT. SS,9), Bergambacht (NL): 2VM Uitgeverij, 2010
Montanari, BDAG
Franco Montanari, The Brill Dictionary of Ancient Greek tr. and ed. Madeleine Goh & Chad Schroeder, Leiden: Brill, 2015
MSL
Materials for the Sumerian Lexikon, 17 vols., Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute, 1937–2004

N.

NASB
The New American Standard Bible (1971)
NBG
Vertaling van het Nederlands Bijbelgenootschap (1951)
NBV
Nieuwe Bijbelvertaling (2004)
NBV21
Nieuwe Bijbelvertaling (2021)
NCBC
The New Century Bible Commentary (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans)
NEB
The New English Bible (1970)
NEchtB
Neue Echter Bibel (Würzburg: Echter)
NETS
Albert Pietersma & Benjamin G. Wright (eds.), A New English Translation of the Septuagint and the Other Greek Translations Traditionally Included under That Title, New York: Oxford University Press, 2007
NICOT
The New International Commentary on the Old Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans Publishing)
NIDB
Katharine Doob Sakenfeld (ed.), The New Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible, 5 vols., Nashville, TN: Abingdon, 2006-09
NIDOTTE
Willem A. van Gemeren (ed.), New International Dictionary of Old Testament Theology and Exegesis, 5 vols., Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1997
NJPS
Tanakh - The Holy Scriptures: A New Translation of the Holy Scriptures according to the Traditional Hebrew Text, Philadelphia, PA: Jewish Publication Society, 1985
NRSV
New Revised Standard Version (1989)

O.

OBO
Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis (Freiburg: Universitätsverlag Freiburg; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht)
OBO.SA
Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis, Series Archaeologica (Freiburg: Universitätsverlag Freiburg; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht)
OLD
Peter G.W. Glare et al. (eds.), Oxford Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon, 1982
OTL
Old Testament Library (London: SCM)
OTS
Oudtestamentische Studiën (Leiden: Brill)

P.

Payne Smith, CSD
Jessie Payne Smith (Mrs. Margoliouth; ed.), A Compendious Syriac Dictionary: founded upon the Thesaurus Syriacus of R. Payne Smith, Oxford: Clarendon, 1903 (repr. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1998)
Payne Smith, TS
Robert Payne Smith, Thesaurus syriacus, 2 vols., Oxford: Clarendon, 1879-1901 (repr. Hildesheim: Olms, 1981)
PLBL
Todd Bolen, Pictorial Library of Bible Lands, 10 vols. on DVD, Grand Rapids, MI: BiblePlaces.com, 2005
PLBL-2
Todd Bolen, Pictorial Library of Bible Lands: Revised and Expanded, 18 vols. on DVD, Grand Rapids, MI: BiblePlaces.com, 2012
PPD
Charles R. Krahmalkov, Phoenician-Punic Dictionary (OLA, 90), Leuven: Peeters, 2000
PPSE
Charles W. Wilson, Picturesque Palestine, Sinai and Egypt, 4 vols., London: J.S. Virtue, 1880-84
PredOT
De Prediking van het Oude Testament (Nijkerk: Callenbach/Kampen: Kok)

R.

REB
The Revised English Bible (1989)
RLA
Erich Ebeling et al. (eds.), Reallexikon der Assyriologie, Bd. 1-, Berlin: de Gruyter, 1928-
RGG 3
Hans E. von Campenhausen and Kurt Galling (eds.), Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart: Handwörterbuch für Theologie und Religionswissenschaft, 3rd ed., 7 vols. (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1957-65)
RGG 4
Hans D. Betz (ed.), Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart: Handwörterbuch für Theologie und Religionswissenschaft, 4th ed., 9 vols. (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1998-2007)
RSP
Loren R. Fisher (ed.), Ras Shamra Parallels: The Texts from Ugarit and the Hebrew Bible, vol.I (AnOr, 49), Roma: Pontificium Institutum Biblicum, 1972; vol.II (AnOr, 50), Roma: Pontificium Institutum Biblicum, 1975; Stan Rummel (ed.), vol.III (AnOr, 51), Roma: Pontificium Institutum Biblicum, 1981
RSV
Revised Standard Version (1952, 1971)

S.

SAA
State Archives of Assyria (Helsinki).
SAIS
Studies in the Aramaic Interpretation of Scripture (Leiden: Brill)
Salonen, Agricultura
Armas Salonen, Agricultura mesopotamica nach sumerisch-akkadischen Quellen (AASF, Ser.B, 149), Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia, 1968
Salonen, Fischerei
Armas Salonen, Die Fischerei im Alten Mesopotamien nach sumerisch-akkadischen Quellen (AASF, Ser.B, 166), Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia, 1970
Salonen, Hausgeräte
Armas Salonen, Die Hausgeräte der alten Mesopotamier nach sumerisch-akkadischen Quellen (AASF, Ser.B, 139/144), 2 Teile, Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia, 1965-66
Salonen, Jagd
Armas Salonen, Jagd und Jagdtiere im alten Mesopotamien (AASF, Ser.B, 196), Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia, 1976
Salonen, Landfahrzeuge
Armas Salonen, Die Landfahrzeuge des alten Mesopotamien (AASF, Ser.B, 72), Helsinki: Finnische Literatur-Gesellschaft, 1951
Salonen, Möbel
Armas Salonen,Die Möbel des alten Mesopotamien (AASF,Ser.B,127), Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia, 1963
Salonen, Türen
Armas Salonen,Die Türen des alten Mesopotamien (AASF,Ser.B,124), Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia, 1961
Salonen, Vögel
Armas Salonen, Vögel und Vogelfang im alten Mesopotamien (AASF, Ser.B, 180), Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia, 1973
SAT
Robert J. Forbes, Studies in Ancient Technology, 9 vols., Leiden: Brill, 21964-72
SBLDS
Society of Biblical Literature Dissertation Series (Atlanta: SBL Press)
SBLSBS
Society of Biblical Literature Sources for Biblical Study (Atlanta: SBL Press)
SBT
Studies in Biblical Theology (London: SCM)
SD
Alfred F.L. Beeston, Sabaic Dictionary, Louvain-la-Neuve: Peeters; Beyrouth: Librairie du Liban, 1982
SDA
Reinhart Dozy, Supplément aux dictionnaires arabes, 2 vols., Leyde: Brill, 1881 (repr. Beyrouth: Librairie du Liban, 1991)
SEL
Studi epigrafici e linguistici sul Vicino Oriente antico (Verona: Essedue Edizioni)
SFG
Heinrich Lewy, Die semitischen Fremdwörter im Griechischen, Berlin: Gaertner, 1895 (repr. Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1970)
SLLAe
Sylvain Grébaut, Supplément au Lexicon linguae aethiopicae de August Dillmann (1865) et édition du lexique de Juste d’Urbin (1850-1855), Paris: Impr. Nationale, 1952
SLOCG
Edouard Lipiński, Semitic Languages:Outline of a Comparative Grammar (OLA, 80), Leuven: Peeters, 1997
SNHL
Jehuda L. Palache, Semantic Notes on the Hebrew Lexicon (tr. and ed. by R.J. Zwi Werblowsky), Leiden: Brill, 1959
SNTSMS
Society for New Testament Studies Monograph Series (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)
Sokoloff, DJBA
Michael Sokoloff, A Dictionary of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic of the Talmudic and Geonic Periods, Ramat-Gan: Bar Ilan University Press, 2002
Sokoloff, DJPA
Michael Sokoloff, A Dictionary of Jewish Palestinian Aramaic of the Byzantine Period, Ramat-Gan: Bar Ilan University Press, 22002
Sokoloff, SLB
Michael Sokoloff, A Syriac Lexicon: A Translation from the Latin, Correction, Expansion, and Update of C. Brockelmann’s Lexicon Syriacum, Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias, 2009
SSN
Studia Semitica Neerlandica (Assen: Van Gorcum; Leiden: Brill)
STOT
Dominique Barthélemy, Studies in the Text of the Old Testament: An Introduction to the Hebrew Old Testament Text Project (Textual Criticism and the Translator, 3), Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2012
STP
Abraham Tal, The Samaritan Targum of the Pentateuch: A Critical Edition, 3 vols., Tel-Aviv: Tel-Aviv University, 1980-83
STS
Jessie Payne Smith (Margoliouth), Supplement to the Thesaurus Syriacus of R. Payne Smith, Oxford: Clarendon, 1927
StV
Statenvertaling (1637)
SubBi
Subsidia Biblica (Roma: Editrice Pontificio Istituto Biblico)
SVT
Supplements to Vetus Testamentum (Leiden: Brill)
SWET
James E. Hoch, Semitic Words in Egyptian Texts of the New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994

T.

TA
Samuel Krauss, Talmudische Archäologie, 3 vols., Leipzig: G. Fock, 1910-12
TAD
Bezalel Porten & Ada Yardeni, Textbook of Aramaic Documents from Ancient Egypt, vol. 1-, Jerusalem: Hebrew University, Department of the History of the Jewish People 1986-
TADTPA
Issam Halayqa, Traditional Agricultural and Domestic Tools in Palestinian Arabic: An Ethnographic and Lexical Study (Semitica Viva, 54), Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2014
Tal, DSA
Abraham Tal, A Dictionary of Samaritan Aramaic, 2 vols., Leiden: Brill, 2000
TCHB 3
Emanuel Tov, Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible, Minneapolis, MN: Fortress, 32012
TDNT
Gerhard Kittel et al. (eds.), Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, 10 vols., tr. and ed. by Geoffrey W. Bromiley, Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans Publishing, 1964-76
TDOT
G. Johannes Botterweck et al. (eds.), Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament, 16 vols., tr. by John T. Willis, Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans Publishing, 1974-2018
THAT
Ernst Jenni & Claus Westermann (eds.), Theologisches Handwörterbuch zum Alten Testament, 2 vols., München: Kaiser, 1971-76
THB
Armin Lange & Emanuel Tov (eds.), Textual History of the Bible: The Hebrew Bible, Volumes 1A-C, Leiden: Brill, 2016-17
ThWAT
G. Johannes Botterweck et al. (eds.), Theologisches Wörterbuch zum Alten Testament, 10 vols., Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1973-2015
ThWNT
Gerhard Kittel et al. (eds.), Theologisches Wörterbuch zum Neuen Testament, 10 vols., Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1933-79
ThWQ
Heinz-Josef Fabry & Ulrich Dahmen (eds.), Theologisches Wörterbuch zu den Qumrantexten, 3 vols., Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 2011-16
TLB
Samuel E. Loewenstamm & Joshua Blau, אוצר לשון המקרא: קונקורדנציה שלמה ומלון עברי ואנגלי (Thesaurus of the Language of the Bible: Complete Concordance, Hebrew-English Dictionary), 3 vols., Jerusalem: Bible Concordance Press, 1957-68
TRE
Horst R. Balz, Gerhard Krause, Gerhard Müller, and Siegfried Schwertner (eds.), Theologische Realenzyklopädie, 36 vols., Berlin: de Gruyter, 1977-2007
TUAT
Otto Kaiser (ed.), Texte aus der Umwelt des Alten Testaments, Gütersloh: Mohn, 1984-2001
TUAT.NF
Otto Kaiser et al. (eds.), Texte aus der Umwelt des Alten Testaments: Neue Folge, Gütersloh: Mohn, 2004-

U.

UF
Ugarit-Forschungen: Internationales Jahrbuch für die Altertumskunde Syrien-Palästinas, Kevelaer: Butzon & Bercker; Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener; Münster: Ugarit, 1969-
UG
Josef Tropper, Ugaritische Grammatik (AOAT, 273), Münster: Ugarit, 2000
UT
Cyrus H. Gordon, Ugaritic Textbook (AnOr, 38), Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute, 1965

V.

Vogt
Ernestus Vogt, Lexicon linguae Aramaicae Veteris Testamenti: documentis antiquis illustratum, Pontificium institutum biblicum, 1971.
VLRM
Michaël Guichard, La vaisselle de luxe des rois de Mari (ARM, 31), Paris: Éditions Recherche sur les civilisations, 2005
VHB
Verklaring van de Hebreeuwse Bijbel (Nijkerk: Callenbach/Kampen: Kok)
VT
Vetus Testamentum (Leiden: Brill)

W.

WÄS
Adolf Erman & Hermann Grapow, Wörterbuch der ägyptischen Sprache, 7 vols., Berlin/Leipzig: Akademie, 1926-63
Waltke and O’Connor, IBHS
Bruce K. Waltke & Michael O’Connor, An Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Syntax, Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1990
WBC
Word Biblical Commentary (Waco, TX: Word)
WC
Westminster Commentaries (London: Methuen & Co.)
Wehr
Hans Wehr, A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic, ed. J. Milton Cowan, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 41979
WKAS
Jörg Kraemer et al. (Hrsg.), Wörterbuch der klassischen arabischen Sprache, vol.1-, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1970-
WOP
Rafi Frankel, Wine and Oil Production in Antiquity in Israel and Other Mediterranean Countries (JSOT/ASOR Monograph Series, 10), Sheffield: Sheffield Academic, 1999
Wortabet
William Thomson Wortabet, Arabic-English Dictionary, 4th ed., Beirut: Librairie du Liban, 1984
WSEmar
Eugen J. Pentiuc, West Semitic Vocabulary in the Akkadian Texts from Emar (HSS, 49), Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2001
WSP
Rainer Hannig & Petra Vomberg, Kulturhandbuch Ägyptens: Wortschatz der Pharaonen in Sachgruppen (Hannig-Lexica, 2), Mainz: Von Zabern, 1995
WTM
Jacob Levy, Wörterbuch über die Talmudim und Midraschim, 4 vols., Berlin: Harz, 21924 (repr. 1963)
WTS
Enno Littmann & Maria Höfner, Wörterbuch der Tigre-Sprache, Wiesbaden: Steiner, 1962
WUNT
Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck)
WUS
Joseph Aistleitner, Wörterbuch der ugaritischen Sprache, Hrsg. v. Otto Eissfeldt, Berlin: Akademie, 21965
WYC
Wycliffe’s Bible (1392/2011)

Z.

ZA
Zeitschrift für Assyriologie und Vorderasiatische Archäologie (Berlin: De Gruyter)
ZABR
Zeitschrift für Altorientalische und Biblische Rechtsgeschichte (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz)
ZAW
Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft (Berlin: De Gruyter)
ZBKAT
Zürcher Bibelkommentare AT (Zürich: TVZ)
ZIBBC
John H. Walton (ed.), Zondervan Illustrated Bible Backgrounds Commentary, 5 vols., Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2009
Zorell
Franz Zorell, Lexicon Hebraicum et Aramaicum Veteris Testamenti, Roma: Pontifical Biblical Institute, 1968
Semantics of Ancient Hebrew Database