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נָבִיא/נְבִיאָה – prophet(ess), diviner

Semantic Fields: Cult   Divination   
Author(s): T. Jonathan Stökl
First published: 2010-08-02
Last update: 2024-06-30
Citation: T. Jonathan Stökl, נָבִיא/נְבִיאָה – prophet(ess), diviner,
               Semantics of Ancient Hebrew Database (https://pthu.github.io/sahd), 2010 (update: 2024)

Introduction

Grammatical Type: n. m./f.
Occurrences: 322x HB (15/258/49); 5x Sir; 68x Qum.; 4x inscr. (Total: 399).

  • Torah: Gen 20:7; Exod 7:1; 15:20; Num 11:29; 12:6; Deut 13:2, 4, 6; 18:15, 18, 20(2x), 22(2x); 34:10.
  • Nebiim: Judg 4:4; 6:8; 1 Sam 3:20; 9:9; 10:5, 10, 11(2x), 12; 19:20, 24; 22:5; 28:6, 15; 2 Sam 7:2; 12:25; 24:11; 1 Kgs 1:8, 10, 22, 23, 32, 34, 38, 44, 45; 11:29; 13:11, 18, 20, 23, 25, 26, 29(2x); 14:2, 18; 16:7, 12; 18:4(2x), 13(2x), 19(2x), 20, 22(2x), 25, 36, 40; 19:1, 10, 14, 16; 20:13, 22, 35, 38, 41; 22:6, 7, 10, 12, 13, 22, 23; 2 Kgs 2:3, 5, 7, 15; 3:11, 13(2x); 4:1, 38(2x); 5:3, 8, 13, 22; 6:1, 12; 9:1(2x), 4, 7; 10:19; 14:25; 17:13(2x), 23; 19:2; 20:1, 11, 14; 21:10; 22:14; 23:2, 18; 24:2; Isa 3:2; 8:3; 9:14; 28:7; 29:10; 37:2; 38:1; 39:3; Jer 1:5; 2:8, 26, 30; 4:9; 5:13, 31; 6:13; 7:25; 8:1, 10; 13:13; 14:13, 14, 15(2x), 18; 18:18; 20:2; 23:9, 11, 13, 14, 15(2x), 16, 21, 25, 26(2x), 28, 30, 31, 33, 34, 37; 25:2, 4; 26:5, 7, 8, 11, 16; 27:9, 14, 15, 16, 18; 28:1, 5(2x), 6, 8, 9(3x), 10(2x), 11, 12(2x), 15(2x), 17; 29:1(2x), 8, 15, 19, 29; 32:2, 32; 34:6; 35:15; 36:8, 26; 37:2, 3, 6, 13, 19; 38:9, 10, 14; 42:2, 4; 43:6; 44:4; 45:1; 46:1, 13; 47:1; 49:34; 50:1; 51:59; Ezek 2:5; 7:26; 13:2(2x), 3, 4, 9, 16; 14:4, 7, 9(2x), 10; 22:25, 28; 33:33; 38:17; Hos 4:5; 6:5; 9:7, 8; 12:11(2x), 14(2x); Amos 2:11, 12; 3:7; 7:14(2x); Mic 3:5, 6, 11; Hab 1:1; 3:1; Zeph 3:4; Hag 1:1, 3, 12; 2:1, 10; Zech 1:1, 4, 5, 6, 7; 7:3, 7, 12; 8:9; 13:2, 4, 5; Mal 3:23.
  • Ketubim: Pss 51:2; 74:9, 105:15; Lam 2:9, 14, 20; 4:13; Dan 9:2, 6, 10, 24; Ezra 9:11; Neh 6:7, 14(2x); 9:26, 30, 32; 1 Chron 16:22; 17:1; 25:1; 29:29; 2 Chron 9:29; 12:5, 15; 13:22; 15:8; 18:5, 6, 9, 11, 12, 21, 22; 20:20; 21:12; 24:19; 25:15, 16; 26:22; 28:9; 29:25(2x); 32:20, 32; 34:22; 35:18; 36:12, 16.
  • Sir: 36:21B; 48:1B, 8B; 49:7B, 10B.
  • Qumran:2 CD 3:21; 4:13; 7:10, 17; 19:7;3 1QS 1:3; 8:16; 9:11;4 1QPHab 1:1; 2:9; 7:5, 8; 1QHa 12:17(=4Q430 f1:4); 1Q29 f1:5; 4Q88 8:14; 4Q158 f6:6, 9; 4Q163 15-16:1; 4Q166 2:5; 4Q174 f1-2i:15, 16; f1-3ii:3; 4Q175 1:5, 7; 4Q177 f1-4:9; f5-6:2, 5; f7:3; f12-13i:1; 4Q265 f1:3; f7:8 4Q285 f4:3; f7:1(=11Q14 f1i:9); 4Q292 f2:4; 4Q375 f1i:1, 4, 6; 4Q376 f1ii:4; 4Q379 f36:2; 4Q381 F69:4; 4Q382 f9:8; f31:5; 4Q383 f6:1; 4Q385a f18i a-b:2, 6; fB:1; 4Q390 f2i:5; 4Q397 f14-21:10(=4Q398 f14-17i:3), 15; 4Q408 f11:4; 4Q418 f221:2; 4Q481a f2:4; 4Q504 f1-2Riii:13; 11Q5 22:5, 14; 28:8, 13; 11Q13 2:15, 17; 11Q19 54:8, 11, 15; 61:2, 3, 4.
  • Inscr.: 1.003.20 (=Lak(6):1.3:20); 1.016.5 (=Lak(6):1.16:5); Vision of Gabriel: 15, 70.1

Text Doubtful

A.1 For 1 Chron 25:1 see comments in §4 Ancient Versions A.11 below.

A.2 While the lemma הנביאים is entirely reconstructed in 1QPHab 1:1 it is certain as that text appears to be a citation of Hab 1:1.

A.3 The lexeme נביא is reconstructed in 4Q161c f15-16:1 on the basis of Isa 29:10.

A.4 According to the editors 1Q29 1:5 reads […יד]בר אליכה והנב[יא…].

A.5 On the basis of parallels with 1Q29 the first word in 4Q376 f1ii:4 is reconstructed as והנביא.

A.6 The reconstruction of […הנ]ביא in 4Q177 f5-6:2 seems reasonable.

A.7 Because of the context, the first word of 4Q88 8:14 (נביים) is usually understood as an alternative spelling for נביאים.

A.8 4Q175 1:5, 7 uses the Aramaic spelling נבי instead of נביא.

A.9 The editors restore הנביא at the end of line 9 in 4Q158 f6.

A.10 In 4Q285 f4:3 Alexander and Vermes suggest restoring יחזקאל הנביא on the basis of the fact that a source citation is expected here and the cited text most likely comes from Ezek 39:3-4.

A.11 4Q376 f1ii:3-4 cites 1Q29 1:5, and therefore והנביא is restored at the beginning of line 4.

A.12 Related to these two texts, 4Q408 fragment 11 is heavily reconstructed by Steudel in her edition of the text leading to the reconstruction in line 4 of ידבר א]ל[יך והנביא.

A.13 4Q382 f9:8, a paraphrase of Kings, relies on 2 Kgs 2:5/15 so that the reconstruction of בני הנביאים appears plausible.

A.14 The tiny fragment 4Q383 f6 which was edited by Dimant has the letters הנב in line 1 going into a break. She tentatively suggests that הנב[יא should be read, but acknowledges that a niph. imperative הִנָּבֵ[א, ‘prophesy’ is also possible.

A.15 It seems likely that Dimant’s reconstruction יר]מיהו הנב[יא in 4Q385a fB:1 is correct.

A.16 On the basis of 4Q397 f14-21:10//4Q398 f14-17i:3 the same expression ‘in the books of the prophets’ can be restored five verses later on: ובס[פרי הנביאי]ם.

A.17 The editor of the editio princeps in DJD XXXVI (364, pl.xxv), Erik Larson, reads a word in 4Q458 f15 2 as הנבואה which is given as הנביאה in the Preliminary Concordance. Considering the similarity between י and ו in late Second Temple scripts both are possible. The context would allow both but favours הנבואה.

A.18 Our lexeme is reconstructed in 4Q481a f2:4 on the basis of 2 Kgs 2:15 on which this passage is based.

A.19 As 11Q14 f1i:9 is parallel to 4Q285 f7:1 the restoration of ישיהו הנביא is certain but should not be counted as an extra attestation.

A.20 Since 11Q19 61 starts with a near quotation from Deut 18:20 it is likely that the preceding verses of Deut 18:14-20 were also quoted in the Temple Scroll. As they are not extant, however, it seems best not to count the three attestations of נביא contained in those verses as we cannot be sure how the author(s) would have phrased the relevant verses.

B.1 In Sir 49:9 Ben Hayyim reconstructs נ̊[ב]י̊א̊ as a title for Job, where LXX does not mention a title and the נ, י and א are all unclear.

B.2 Torczyner (Torczyner et al. 1938:138) and Gibson (1971:45-46) reconstruct ה[נביא in Lachish 6 (1.006.5 in AHI-1). While this reconstruction is theoretically possible, the now common reconstruction ה[שרים appears better as it picks up the term שרים already used in the letter.

B.3 It is possible that the Lachish stamp seal 100.258.3 should be reconstructed to read
הנבי[א].5 The name נבי (Nobai) occurs three further times on Hebrew bullae as a patronym and is, according to Avigad, well attested in South-Arabic. It may also refer to the city נֹב. The other three bullae (all unprovenanced) are: 100.343.2; 100.785.2; 100.886.2.6

Qere/Ketiv:

A.1 The ketiv of 1 Chron 25:1 is הַנְּבִיאִים, ‘the prophets’; the qere has a niph. part., ‘who were prophesying’. The qere is supported by LXX, Targum and Vulgate. The Peshitta has a divergent text here.

1. Root And Comparative Material

A.1 The root √nbʾ/y is a common Semitic root and is attested in Akkadian, Eblaite, Emarite, Hebrew, Arabic, Aramaic, Ethiopic and Old South Arabic.7 It also appears once in a Punic name and possibly once in a Ugaritic name.8

A.2 In Arabic, the associated verb appears in the Ist, IInd, IVth, and Xth stems. Müller holds that in Arabic and the Old South Arabian dialects the verb is the primary form of this root and the nouns are denominative.9

A.3 The verb nabû II is the standard word for ‘call’ in Akkadian and is therefore attested widely in Akkadian literature.10 The adjective is used as a royal title in its uncontracted and contracted forms (nabīu and nabû respectively): RN nabīu GN, e.g. Hammurapi, called by Anu (LIH 94:10).

A.4 The root is attested also in Emar Akkadian in the D-stem as a verb (nubbû, ‘to invoke’) and in two derived nominal forms, a D part. fem.pl. *munabbiātu and as a G verbal adj. masc.pl. nabî. The feminine form is attested three times in the expression Išḫara ša munabbiāti, ‘Išḫara of the m.’, and once as the recipients of meat in a ration list.11 The masculine term is attested once in line 11 of version F of Emar 387 in the expression ina bīt nabî, ‘in the temple of the nabûs’.12 On the basis of these texts, Daniel Fleming has argued that Heb. נביא should be understood as an active form, ‘he who calls’. In contrast, Huehnergard argues that נביא is a qātīl-pattern of the root נבא. Proto-Semitic qatīl appears in the qātīl-pattern in Hebrew and is normally passive (or ‘patiens’).13

A.5 In Eblaite the root appears parallel to Sumerian PÀ(D), ‘name/call’, in lexical lists.14 The verb also appears in the G-stem especially in names: i-bi+GN, ‘GN called’ and na-+GN ‘called by GN’.

A.6 It appears that the noun נביא is primary in Hebrew, from which the verbs הנבא (niph.) and התנבא (hithp.) are derived. This has the effect that the root operates primarily as a nominal root in Hebrew.15

A.7 Torczyner (1931:322), Rinaldi (1963) and Mánek (1962) argue that נביא is a loan from Akkadian. This view is opposed strongly by Müller (1984) and in view of the fact that the semantics in Akkadian and Hebrew differ so considerably it appears difficult to uphold the idea that
נביא is a direct loan from Akkadian into Hebrew. That the two words are etymologically related, however, is clear.

B.1 Several attempts have been made in the past to provide נביא with an Egyptian etymology. The first to attempt this was Norman Walker (1961), who suggested Egyptian n-b i-3-w, the ‘(God-)honoured one’. The sound changes involved, however, make this derivation unlikely (Barr 1968:102). Later Manfred Görg made a sustained attempt to derive נביא from the Egyptian verb nb3, ‘rave, be excited’ attested solely in medical texts.16

B.2 The root √נבא used to be regarded as linked to the root √נבע, ‘bubble up’ by softening of the ע.17 The required sound-change from ע to א renders this suggestion unlikely (Johnson 1962:24 n.5; Jeremias 1976:7; Müller 1984:147).

B.3 The folk etymology in 1 Sam 9 plays with the theoretical possibility that נביא is a 1cp PC (imperfect) hiph. of בוא.18 Land and Pfeiffer proposed that נביא is a passive form of בוא.19

B.4 Bewer (1902:120) suggested understanding נביא as a passive form of a root √נבא III, which according to Delitzsch’s dictionary (1896:442) means ‘carry away’. That Akkadian verb is now recognised to be napāṣu (CAD NII, 171).

2. Formal Characteristics

A.1 qātīl / q etīlā(h) of a root ל״א (see Fox 2003). Noun.

3. Syntagmatics

A.1 נביא(ה) is subject of the following verbs:

  • אכל, ‘eat’ in 1 Kgs 18:19; Ezek 22:25;20
  • אמן hiph., ‘believe’ in Sir 36:21;
  • אמר, ‘say’ in Judg 6:8; 1 Kgs 13:26; 20:13, 22; 22:6; Jer 14:13, 15; 23:25, 34; 26:11; 27:9, 14; Ezek 22:28; 2 Chron 18:5; 25:15, 16; 28:9; 4Q158 6:6;
  • בוא, ‘come’ in 1 Kgs 13:26; 2 Kgs 23:18; Ezek 13:9; 1QS 9:11;
  • בושׁ, ‘be ashamed’ in Zech 13:4;
  • בחר, ‘choose’ in 1 Kgs 18:25;
  • בצע, ‘gain’ in Jer 6:13; 8:10;
  • גלה pi., ‘reveal’ in Lam 2:14; 1QS 8:16;
  • גנב pi., ‘steal’ in Jer 23:30;
  • דבר pi., ‘speak’ in Deut 13:6; 18:18, 20; 18:22; Jer 23:28; Ezek 14:9; Dan 9:6; 2 Chron 25:16; 1Q29 1:5//4Q376 f1ii:3-4; 1QPHab 7:8; 4Q375 f1i:4; [4Q158 6:9]; 4Q175 1:6, 7; 11Q19 54:15; 61:3-4;
  • הבל hiph., ‘befool’ in Jer 23:16;
  • היה, ‘be’ in Num 12:6; Jer 5:13; 28:8; Ezek 13:9; 33:33; Neh 6:14; 2 Chron 28:9;
  • הלך, ‘walk’ in 1 Kgs 20:38; Jer 2:8; 23:14; Ezek 13:3;
  • הרה, ‘conceive’ in Isa 8:3;
  • זיר hiph., ‘act presumptuously’ in Deut 18:20;
  • חדל, ‘cease’ in 2 Chron 25:16;
  • חזה, ‘see’ in Ezek 13:9, 16; 22:18; Lam 2:14;
  • חזק pi., ‘strengthen’ in Jer 23:14;
  • חיה, ‘live’ in Zech 1:5;
  • חנף, ‘be godless’ in Jer 23:11;
  • חלף hiph., ‘replace/change’ in Sir 48:8;
  • חפשׂ hithp., ‘disguise oneself’ in 1 Kgs 20:38;
  • טוח, ‘daube’ in Ezek 22:28;
  • ידע, ‘know’ in Jer 14:18;
  • ילד, ‘give birth’ in Isa 8:3;
  • יצא, ‘go out’ in 2 Chron 28:9;
  • יצר hoph., ‘be formed’ in Sir 49:7;
  • ירה hiph., ‘teach’ in Isa 9:14;
  • ישׁב, ‘sit/dwell’ in 1 Kgs 13:25; 2 Kgs 22:14;
  • כחשׁ pi., ‘deceive’ in Zech 13:4;
  • כתב niph., ‘be written/listed’ in Ezek 13:9;
  • כשׁל, ‘stumble’ in Hos 4:5;
  • לבשׁ, ‘wear’ in Zech 13:4;
  • למד pi., ‘teach’ in 4Q381 f69:4;
  • לקח, ‘take’ in Jer 23:31; Ezek 22:25;
  • מות, ‘be dead/die’ in Deut 18:20;
  • מות hoph., ‘be dead/killed’ in Deut 13:6; 11Q19 54:15; 61:2;
  • מצא, ‘find’ in Lam 2:9;
  • משׁח, ‘anoint’ in 11Q5a 28:8, 13;
  • נאם pi., ‘utter’ in Jer 23:31;
  • נבא niph., ‘prophesy’ in 1 Sam 19:20;21 1 Kgs 22:12; Jer 2:8; 5:31; 14:14, 15; 23:13, 16, 21, 25, 26; 27:15, 16; 28:8, 9; Ezek 13:2, 16; 38:17; Am 2:12; Zech 13:4; 2 Chron 18:11;
  • נבא hithp., ‘prophesy’ in 1 Sam 10:5;22 1 Kgs 22:10; Jer 14:14; 2 Chron 18:9;
  • נגשׁ, ‘approach’ in 1 Kgs 20:13;
  • נגשׁ niph., ‘approach’ in 1 Kgs 20:13;
  • נוח hiph., ‘lay’ in 1 Kgs 13:29;
  • נשׁך, ‘bite’ in Mic 3:5;
  • נשׂא, ‘lift’ in 1 Kgs 13:29; Ezek 14:10;
  • נשׂא hiph., ‘beguile’ in Jer 29:8;
  • נשׂג hiph., ‘overtake’ in Zech 1:6;
  • נתן, ‘give’ in Deut 13:2//11Q19 54:8;
  • סחר, ‘roam’ in Jer 14:18;
  • ספד, ‘count/mourn’ in 1 Kgs 13:29;
  • ספר pi., ‘recount’ in Jer 23:28;
  • עוד hiph., ‘testify’ in 2 Chron 24:19;
  • עמד, ‘stand’ in 1 Kgs 20:38;
  • עשׂה, ‘do/make’ in 1 Kgs 18:25; Jer 6:13; 8:10;
  • פגע, ‘intercede’ in Jer 27:18;
  • פוק, ‘reel’ in Isa 28:7;
  • פחז, ‘be treacherous’ in Zeph 3:4;23
  • פקד niph., ‘be missed’ in 2 Kgs 10:19;
  • פתה pu., ‘be deceived’ in Ezek 14:9;
  • קדשׁ pi., ‘consecrate’ in Mic 3:5;
  • קום, ‘rise’ in Deut 13:2//11Q19 54:8; Deut 34:10; Sir 48:1; 4Q375 f1i:4;
  • קבר, ‘bury’ in 1 Kgs 13:29;
  • קסם, ‘divine’ in Ezek 13:9; 22:28; Mic 3:11;
  • קרא, ‘call’ in 1 Kgs 18:25; Mic 3:5; Zech 1:4; Neh 6:7;
  • ראה, ‘see’ in Ezek 13:3;
  • רבה hiph., ‘make many’ in Ezek 22:25;
  • רוץ, ‘run’ in Jer 23:21;
  • שׁגה, ‘stagger’ in Isa 28:7;
  • שׁוב hiph. ‘bring back’ in 1 Kgs 13:26, 29; Lam 2:14; 2 Chron 24:19;
  • שׁמע, ‘listen’ in 1 Kgs 13:26; Ezek 13:2;
  • שׁען niph., ‘rely’ in Mic 3:11;
  • שׂים, ‘put’ in 1 Kgs 18:23;
  • שֹכל hiph., ‘instruct’ in 4Q381 F69:4;
  • תמהּ, ‘be astounded’ in Jer 4:9;
  • תמם, ‘be finished’ in Jer 14:15;
  • תעה, ‘err’ in Isa 28:7;
  • תעה hiph., ‘lead astray’ in Jer 23:13; Mic 3:5;
  • תפשׂ, ‘seize’ in Jer 26:8.

A.2 The following verbs are used with characters who in the same pericope are described as נביא(ה):

  • אכל, ‘eat’, 1 Kgs 19:5, 6, 7, 8; 2 Kgs 4:40; Ezek 2:8; 3:1, 3;
  • אמר, ‘say’, Gen 20:1, 5, 11, 13; Judg 4:9, 14; 1 Sam 3:4, 5, 8, 16; 22:5; 2 Sam 7:2, 5, 8; 24:12; 1 Kgs 1:11, 24; 11:31; 13:12, 14, 15, 18, 31; 14:6; 18:8, 15, 21, 22, 27, 30, 34, 36, 40, 41, 43, 44; 19:4, 10, 14, 20; 20:14, 35, 36, 37, 39, 42; 22:11, 24; 2 Kgs 2:3, 5, 15, 16; 3:14, 16; 4:40; 5:16, 19, 25; 6:1, 3, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22; 9:1, 3, 5, 6; 19:6; 20:1, 7, 9, 14, 15, 16; 22:15; Isa 37:6; 38:1, 5, 21; 39:3, 4, 5; Jer 1:6, 7; 20:3; 23:17; 28:1, 5, 6, 11, 13, 15; 32:6; 37:7, 14, 17, 18; 38:15, 17, 20, 26; 42:2, 49; 43:10; 51:61; Ezek 13:6, 7, 10; Hag 1:13; 2:13, 14, 21; Zech 1:3, 9; 13:5; 1 Chron 17:2, 4, 7; 2 Chron 12:5; 18:10, 23; 34:23;
  • אזן hiph., ‘listen’, Isa 28:23;
  • בוא, ‘come’, 2 Sam 24:12; 1 Kgs 1:1:22, 23, 32; 19:3, 4, 9, 15; 22:25; 2 Kgs 2:15; 4:39; 5:22; 6:4; 9:2, 5, 6; 20:1, 5, 14; Isa 28:15; 38:1; 39:3; Jer 37:4, 16; 43:7; Ps 51:2; 2 Chron 12:5;
  • בוא hiph., ‘bring’, 2 Kgs 9:2;
  • בושׁ, ‘be ashamed’, Jer 6:15; 8:12;
  • בושׁ hiph., ‘shame/act shamefully’, Jer 6:15; 8:12;
  • בחר, ‘chose’, 1 Kgs 18:23;
  • בטח, ‘promise’, Jer 28:15;
  • בנה, ‘build’, 1 Kgs 18:32;
  • גאל niph., ‘be defiled’, Lam 4:14;
  • גדד hithpo., ‘gash oneself’, 1 Kgs 18:28;
  • גדר, ‘wall up’, Ezek 13:5;
  • גדל, ‘grow’, 1 Sam 3:19;
  • גדל pi. ‘make great’, 11Q5 28:8;
  • גהר, ‘bend’, 1 Kgs 18:42;
  • גזר, ‘cut’, 2 Kgs 6:4;
  • דבר, ‘speak’, Jer 38:20;
  • דבר pi., ‘speak’, Exod 7:2; Deut 13:3; 18:19; 1 Sam 3:10; 2 Sam 7:17; 24:12; 1 Kgs 13:12; 13:27; 14:5; Jer 1:6, 7; 25:2; 26:7; 28:7, 16; 34:6; 36:4; 43:1; 45:1; Ezek 2:7; 3:1, 4, 11; 13:8; 11Q19 54:9;
  • היה, ‘be’, Jer 32:2; 37:13;
  • הלך, ‘walk’, Judg 4:9; 1 Sam 3:6, 8; 2 Sam 7:5; 24:12; 1 Kgs 13:14, 28; 18:2; 19:3, 4, 8, 15, 19; 20:36; 2 Kgs 2:7; 6:2; 9:1, 4; Isa 28:7; 38:5; Jer 1:7; 28:13; 37:12; Ezek 3:1, 4, 11; 1 Chron 17:4, 15; 4Q385a f18i a-b:6;
  • הלך hiph., ‘lead’, 2 Kgs 6:19;
  • התל pi., ‘mock’, 1 Kgs 18:27;
  • זעק, ‘cry’, 2 Chron 32:20;
  • חבשׁ, ‘bind’, 1 Kgs 13:23;
  • חגר, ‘tie’, 2 Kgs 9:1;
  • II חוה, ‘bow down’, 1 Kgs 1:23; 2 Kgs 2:15;
  • חזה, ‘see’, Ezek 13:6, 7, 8; Hab 1:1; 1QPHab 1:1;
  • חיה, ‘live’, 2 Kgs 10:19;
  • חכה, ‘wait’, 2 Kgs 9:3;
  • חלם, ‘dream’, Jer 23:25;
  • חלק pi., ‘divide’, Jer 37:12;
  • חרץ, ‘decide’, 1 Kgs 20:40;
  • חשׁב, ‘plan/think’, Jer 23:27;
  • חשׁה, ‘be silent’, 2 Kgs 2:3, 5;
  • חתם, ‘seal’, Jer 32:10;
  • חתת, ‘be dismayed’, Ezek 2:6; 3:9;
  • טוח, ‘coat’, Ezek 13:10, 12, 14, 15;
  • ידח niph., ‘be pushed’, Jer 23:12;
  • ידע, ‘know’, 1 Sam 3:7; Jer 1:6; 6:15; 8:12; 32:7; 2 Chron 25:16;
  • יחל, ‘wait’, Ezek 13:6;
  • יכל, ‘be able’, 1 Kgs 14:4; 2 Kgs 4:40;
  • יעל hiph., ‘profit’, Jer 23:32;
  • יעץ, ‘advise’, 1 Kgs 1:12; Jer 38:15;
  • יצא, ‘go out’, 1 Kgs 19:11, 13; 20:39; 2 Kgs 2:3; 4:39; 20:4; Jer 37:4, 12;
  • יצק, ‘pour out’, 2 Kgs 3:11; 4:40; 9:3, 5;
  • יקשׁ niph., ‘be ensnared’, Isa 28:13;
  • ירא, ‘fear’, 1 Kgs 19:3; 2 Kgs 4:1; Jer 1:8; Ezek 2:6; 3:9;
  • ירא, pi., ‘frighten’, Neh 6:14;
  • ירד, ‘go down’, 1 Sam 10:5;
  • ירד, hiph., ‘lead down’, 1 Kgs 18:40;
  • ישׁב, ‘dwell’, Gen 20:1; Judg 4:4; 1 Kgs 13:14; 19:4; 2 Kgs 4:38; 6:2; 9:5; Jer 37:16, 21; 38:13, 28; Ezek 2:6;
  • ישׁן, ‘sleep’, 1 Kgs 19:5;
  • יתר niph., ‘remain’, 1 Kgs 18:22; 19:10, 14;
  • כחד pi., ‘hide’, Jer 38:14;
  • כחר pi., ‘hide’, 1 Sam 3:18;
  • כחשׁ pi., ‘lie’, 1 Kgs 13:18;
  • כלה, ‘finish’, Jer 43:1; Ezek 13:14;
  • כסה hithp., ‘cover oneself’, 1 Kgs 11:29;
  • כרת, ‘cut’, Isa 28:15;
  • כשׁל, ‘stagger’, Isa 28:13;
  • כשׁל, niph., ‘stumble’, Jer 6:15; 8:12;
  • כתב, ‘write’, Jer 32:10; 36:2; 51:60; 2 Chron 26:22;
  • לוט hiph., ‘enwrap’, 1 Kgs 19:13;
  • לין, ‘spend the night’, 1 Kgs 19:9;
  • ליץ hitpo., ‘scoff’, Isa 28:22;
  • לכד niph., ‘be seized’, Isa 28:13;
  • לקח, ‘take’, Exod 15:20; 1 Kgs 18:26, 31; 2 Kgs 5:16; 6:2; 9:1, 3; 20:7; Jer 28:10; 32:11; 32:33; 43:9; Ezek 3:10;
  • לקט pi., ‘harvest’, 2 Kgs 4:39;
  • מאן pi. ‘refuse’, 1 Kgs 20:35; 2 Kgs 5:16;
  • מהר pi., ‘do quickly’, 1 Kgs 20:41;
  • מות, ‘die’, Deut 34:5, 7; 1 Kgs 19:4; 2 Kgs 4:1; Jer 28:16, 17; 38:9, 10, 26;
  • מלא, ‘be full’, Ezek 3:3;
  • מנע, ‘withhold’, Jer 42:4;
  • מצא, ‘find’, 1 Kgs 11:29; 13:14, 28; 19:19; 20:37; 2 Kgs 4:39; Ezek 3:1;
  • משׁח, ‘anoint’, 1 Kgs 1:34; 19:15; 2 Kgs 9:6;
  • משׁל, ‘rule’, Isa 28:14;
  • נבא niph., ‘prophesy’, Jer 14:16; 20:1; 23:32; 27:10; 29:9; 32:3; 37:19;
  • נבא hithp., ‘prophesy’, 1 Kgs 18:29; Jer 29:27;
  • נבט hiph., ‘look’, 1 Kgs 19:6; 2 Kgs 3:14;
  • נגד, ‘tell’, 1 Sam 3:18; 2 Sam 24:12; 2 Kgs 6:12; Jer 38:15, 27; 42:4, 21;
  • נגשׁ, ‘approach’, 1 Kgs 18:21, 36; 22:24; 2 Kgs 2:5; 2 Chron 18:23;
  • נוח hiph., ‘lay’, 1 Kgs 13:30; 19:3;
  • נוס, ‘flee’, 2 Kgs 9:3, 10;
  • נוע, ‘wander’, Lam 4:14, 15;
  • נכה hiph. ‘hit’, 1 Kgs 20:35, 37; 22:24//2 Chron 18:23;
  • נסע, ‘travel’, Gen 20:1;
  • נפל, ‘fall’, Jer 6:15; 8:12; 23:12; 37:14; 42:2, 9;
  • נפל hiph., ‘make fall’, 2 Kgs 6:5; Jer 38:26;
  • נשׂא, ‘lift’, 2 Kgs 3:14;
  • נתח pi., ‘cut’, 1 Kgs 18:23, 33;
  • נתן, ‘give’, 1 Kgs 18:23; Jer 32:12, 16;
  • סור hiph., ‘remove’, 1 Kgs 20:41;
  • ספד, ‘count/mourn’, 1 Kgs 13:30;
  • ספר pi., ‘recount’, Jer 23:27, 32;
  • סתר niph., ‘hide oneself’, Isa 28:15;
  • עבר, ‘cross over’, Deut 34:4; 1 Kgs 19:19;
  • עוד, ‘witness’, Jer 32:10;
  • עכר, ‘trouble’, 1 Kgs 18:18;
  • עלה, ‘go up’, Deut 34:1; Judg 4:9; 1 Kgs 18:42; Ezek 13:5;
  • עמד, ‘stand’, 1 Kgs 18:15; 19:11, 13; 2 Kgs 2:7; 3:14; 5:16; Jer 23:22; Ezek 2:1;
  • ענה, ‘answer’, Exod 15:21; Hag 2:14;
  • ערך, ‘set in order’, 1 Kgs 18:33;
  • עשׂה, ‘do’, 1 Kgs 18:23, 26, 32; 19:1, 20; 20:40; 22:11//2 Chron 18:10; 2 Kgs 6:2; Isa 28:15; Jer 6:15; 8:12; 28:13; 38:12;
  • פלח pi., ‘cleave’, 2 Kgs 4:39;
  • פלל hithp. ‘pray/intercede’, Gen 20:7, 17; 2 Kgs 6:17, 18; Jer 32:16; 37:3; 42:2, 4; 2 Chron 32:20;
  • פנה, ‘turn’, Jer 32:32;
  • פסח pi., ‘leap’, 1 Kgs 18:26;
  • פצה, ‘open’, Ezek 2:8;
  • פרץ, ‘press’, 2 Kgs 2:17;
  • פתח, ‘open’, 1 Sam 3:15; 2 Kgs 9:3, 10; Ezek 3:2;
  • צוה pi., ‘command’, Jer 32:13; 36:5, 8; 4Q385a f18i a-b:6-7;
  • צעק, ‘cry out’, 1 Kgs 20:39; 2 Kgs 4:40;
  • קבר, ‘bury’, 1 Kgs 13:31;
  • קום, ‘arise’, 1 Sam 3:6, 8; 1 Kgs 19:3, 5, 7, 8; 2 Kgs 9:6;
  • קום hiph., ‘raise’, 2 Kgs 9:2;
  • קנא pi., ‘be zealous’, 1 Kgs 19:10, 14;
  • קנה, ‘acquire’, Jer 32:7, 8, 9;
  • קרא, ‘call’, Judg 4:6; 1 Kgs 13:21; 18:24, 26, 27, 28; 2 Kgs 9:1; 20:11; Jer 36:4; 42:8;
  • קרע, ‘tear’, 1 Kgs 11:30;
  • קשׁב hiph., ‘listen’, Isa 28:23;
  • ראה, ‘see’, 1 Kgs 14:4; 22:25//2 Chron 18:24; 2 Kgs 3:14; 9:2; Jer 1:10; Zech 1:8;
  • ראה niph., ‘appear’, 1 Kgs 18:2, 15; 2 Kgs 2:15;
  • ראה hiph., Deut 34:1, 4;
  • רום hiph., ‘lift’, 2 Kgs 6:7;
  • רוץ, ‘run’, 1 Sam 3:5; 1 Kgs 18:46;
  • רכב, ‘mount’, 1 Kgs 13:13;
  • רפא pi. ‘heal/repair’, 1 Kgs 18:30; Jer 6:14; 8:11;
  • שׁאל, ‘ask’, 1 Kgs 19:4; Jer 23:33;
  • שׁבר, ‘break’, Jer 28:10, 12, 13;
  • שׁבר niph. ‘be broken’, Isa 28:13;
  • שׁוב, ‘return’, 1 Sam 3:5; 1 Kgs 19:15; 2 Kgs 2:18; 20:5;
  • שׁוב hiph., ‘bring back’, 1 Kgs 13:20, 23; Jer 23:22; Mal 3:24;
  • שׁחט, ‘slaughter’, 1 Kgs 18:40;
  • שׁיר, ‘sing’, Judg 5:1;
  • שׁכב, ‘lie’, 1 Sam 3:3, 5, 8, 15; 1 Kgs 19:5, 6;
  • שׁכח hiph., ‘make forget’, Jer 23:27;
  • שׁלח, ‘send’, Judg 4:6; 2 Kgs 2:17; 5:8, 10; 6:7; Jer 29:1, 28;
  • שׁלך hiph., ‘throw’, 1 Kgs 19:19;
  • שׁמע, ‘listen’, 1 Sam 3:10; 1 Kgs 14:6; 19:13; 20:36; 2 Kgs 5:8; Isa 28:12; 28:23; Jer 28:7, 15; 32:33; 43:7; Ezek 2:2, 8; 3:10;
  • שׁמע hiph., ‘announce’, Jer 23:22;
  • שׁנס pi., ‘gird up’, 1 Kgs 18:46;
  • שׁפט, ‘judge’, Judg 4:4;
  • שׁקל, ‘weigh’, Jer 32:9, 10;
  • שׁרת, ‘serve’, 1 Sam 3:1;
  • שׁתה, ‘drink’, 1 Kgs 19:6, 8;
  • שִׂים, ‘put’, 1 Kgs 18:23, 33, 42; Isa 28:15;
  • תעה hiph., ‘cause to err’, Jer 23:32;
  • תפשׂ, ‘seize’, 1 Kgs 11:30.

A.3 נָבִיא is the object of:

  • אכל hiph., ‘make eat’, Jer 23:15;
  • אמן hiph., ‘believe’, 2 Chron 20:20;
  • בושׁ hiph., ‘shame’, Jer 2:26;
  • בכה, ‘cry’, Deut 34:8;
  • דבר pi., ‘speak’, Jer 14:14;
  • הרג, ‘kill’, 1 Kgs 18:13; 19:1; Hos 6:5; Lam 2:20; Neh 6:26;
  • חבא hiph., ‘hide’, 1 Kgs 18:4, 13;
  • חצב, ‘hew’, Hos 6:5;
  • ידע, ‘know’, Jer 1:5;
  • יצר, ‘form’, Jer 1:5;
  • ירד hiph., ‘lead down’, 1 Kgs 18:40;
  • כול pilp., ‘provide’, 1 Kgs 18:4, 13;
  • כסה pi., ‘cover’, Isa 29:10//4QPIsac 15-16:1;
  • כרת hiph., ‘destroy/kill’, 1 Kgs 18:4;
  • לקח, ‘take’, 1 Kgs 18:4; Jer 36:26; 38:14;
  • משׁח, ‘anoint’, 1 Kgs 19:16;
  • נכה hiph., ‘strike’, Jer 20:2;
  • נכר hiph., ‘recognise’, 1 Kgs 20:41;
  • נתן, ‘give’, Jer 1:5; 20:2;
  • סמך, ‘lay’, Deut 34:9;
  • סתר hiph., ‘hide’, Jer 36:26;
  • עבר hiph., ‘cause to pass’, Zech 13:2;
  • עלה hiph., ‘lead up’, Jer 38:10;
  • עמד hiph., ‘set/make stand up’, Neh 6:7;
  • ענה, ‘answer’, Jer 23:37;
  • עשֹה, ‘do’, Deut 34:11, 12; Jer 38:9;
  • פתה pi., ‘deceive’, Ezek 14:9;
  • צוה pi., ‘command’, Deut 18:18, 20; 34:9; Jer 14:14; Amos 2:12;
  • קבץ, ‘gather’, 1 Kgs 18:20; 22:6//2 Chron 18:5;
  • קדשׁ hiph., ‘consecrate’, Jer 1:5;
  • קום hiph., ‘raise’, Deut 18:15, 18; Jer 29:15; Amos 2:11; 4Q175 1:5, 7;
  • קרא, ‘call’, 1 Sam 9:9; 2 Kgs 10:19;
  • רעע, ‘harm’, Ps 105:15; 1 Chron 16:22;
  • שׁאל, ‘ask’, Jer 38:14;
  • שׁחט, ‘slaughter’, 1 Kgs 18:40;
  • שׁלח, ‘send’, Deut 34:11; Jer 7:25; 14:14, 15; 23:21; 25:4; 26:5; 27:15; 28:9, 15; 29:19; 35:15; 38:14; Hag 1:12; 2 Chron 24:19; 4Q504 f1-2Riii:13; 11Q5 28:8; Vision of Gabriel:70;
  • שׁלח pi., ‘send away’, Jer 28:16;
  • שׁלך hiph., ‘throw’, Jer 38:9;
  • שׁמד hiph., ‘destroy’, Ezek 14:9;
  • שׁמע, ‘hear’, Jer 42:4;
  • שׁקה hiph., ‘make drink’, Jer 23:15;
  • תעע pilp., ‘taunt’, 2 Chron 36:16;
  • תפשׂ, ‘seize’, Jer 37:13.

A.4 The following individuals bear the title נביא(ה): Aaron (Exod 7:1); Abraham (Gen 20:7); Ahijah (1 Kgs 11:29; 14:2); Daniel (4Q174 1-3 ii:3); Deborah (Judg 4:4); Elijah (1 Kgs 18:22, 36; 19:16; Mal 3:23; 2 Chron 21:12); Elisha (2 Kgs 3:11; 6:12; 9:1); Gad (2 Sam 24:11); Ezekiel (CD 3:21; 4Q174 f.1-2i:16; 4Q177 f7:3); Habakkuk (Hab 1:1; 3:1; 1QPHab 1:1); Haggai (Hag 1:1, 3, 12; 2:1, 10); Hananiah (Jer 28:1, 5, 10, 12, 15, 17); Huldah (2 Kgs 22:14//2 Chron 34:22); Iddo (2 Chron 13:22); Isaiah (2 Kgs 19:2; 20:1; Isa 37:2; 38:1; 39:3; 2 Chron 26:22; 32:20, 32; CD 4:13; 7:10; 4Q174 f.1-2i:15; 4Q265 f1:3; 4Q285 f7:1; 11Q13 2:15); Jehu ben Hanani (1 Kgs 16:7, 12); Jeremiah (Jer 20:2; 25:2; 28:5, 10, 11, 12, 15; 29:1, 29; 32:2; 34:6; 36:8, 26; 37:2, 3, 6, 13; 38:9, 10, 14; 42:2, 4, 6; 45:1; 46:1, 13; 47:1; 49:34; 50:1; 51:60; Dan 9:2; 2 Chron 36:12; 4Q385a f18i a-b:2, 6; fB:1); Jonah (2 Kgs 14:25); Miriam (Exod 15:20); Nathan (2 Sam 7:2//1 Chron 17:1; 2 Sam 12:25; 1 Kgs 1:8, 10, 22, 23, 32, 34, 38, 44, 45; Ps 51:2; 1 Chron 29:29; 2 Chron 9:29; 29:25); Oded/Azariah (2 Chron 15:8); Samuel (1 Sam 3:20; 2 Chron 35:18; 11Q5 28:8); Shemaiah (2 Chron 12:5, 15) and Zechariah (Zech 1:1, 7; CD 19:7).

A.5 The expression {כ(ו)ל} עבדיך/ו/י הנביאים occurs 24x: 1 Kgs 14:18; 2 Kgs 9:7; 17:13, 23; 21:10; 24:2; Jer 7:25; 25:4; 26:5; 29:19; 35:15; 44:4; Ezek 38:17; Amos 3:7; Zech 1:6; Dan 9:6, 10; Ezra 9:11; 1QS 1:3; 1QPHab 2:9; 7:5; 4Q166 2:5; 4Q265 f7:8; 4Q292 f2:4; 4Q390 f2i:5.

A.6 The lexeme נביא is the nomen rectum of

  • בְּיַד, ‘in the hand’: 1 Sam 28:15; Zech 7:7, 12; Hos 12:11; Neh 6:30; 2 Chron 29:25;
  • בני, ‘the sons’: 1 Kgs 20:35; 2 Kgs 2:3, 5, 15; 4:1; 4:38; 5:22; 6:1; 9:1, 4;
  • דבר(י), ‘the word(s)’: Deut 13:2//11Q19 54:8; 1 Kgs 22:13//2 Chron 18:12; Jer 23:16; 27:14; 28:9;
  • חבל, ‘group’: 1 Sam 10:5, 10;
  • חטא, ‘sin’: Lam 4:13;
  • חלומות, ‘dreams’: 11Q5 22:14;
  • חסדי, ‘faithfullness, goodness’: 11Q5 22:5;
  • כל, ‘all’: 1 Kgs 22:22//2 Chron 18:21; 1 Kgs 22:23; 2 Kgs 10:19; 17:13; Jer 7:25;
  • לב, ‘heart’: Jer 23:26;
  • להקת, ‘company’: 1 Sam 19:20;
  • ישראל, ‘Israel’: 4Q177 f1-4:9;
  • סֵפֶר, ‘scroll, letter’: CD 7:17; 4QMMT d 14-21:10 [=4QMMTe 14-17 i:3], 15;
  • פה, ‘mouth’: Zech 8:9; 2 Chron 18:22;
  • קשׁר, ‘conspiracy’: Ezek 22:25;
  • עצם, ‘bones’: Jer 8:1.

A.7 נביא is the nomen regens of

  • אב, ‘father’: 2 Kgs 3:13;
  • אם, ‘mother’: 2 Kgs 3:13;
  • אשׁרה, ‘Asherah’: 1 Kgs 18:19;
  • בעל, ‘Baal’: 1 Kgs 18:19, 22, 25, 40; 2 Kgs 10:19;
  • יהוה, ‘YHWH’: 1 Kgs 18:4, 13(2x);
  • ירושׁלם, ‘Jerusalem’: Jer 23:14, 15;
  • ישׂראל, ‘Israel’: Ezek 13:2, 16; 38:17;
  • כזב, ‘lie’: 1QHa 12:17=4Q430 1:4;
  • מִלִּבָּם, ‘their own hearts, imagination’: Ezek 13:2;
  • שׁמרון, ‘Samaria’: Jer 23:13;
  • תַרְמִת, ‘deceit’: Jer 23:26.

A.8 נביא is used with the following adjectives:

  • אֱוִיל, ‘foolish’: Hos 9:7;
  • אֶחָד, ‘one’: 1 Kgs 13:11; 20:13;
  • אֵלֶּה, ‘these’: 1 Kgs 22:23; 2 Chron 18:22;
  • זקן, ‘old’: 1 Kgs 13:11, 25, 29;
  • נאמן, ‘trustworthy’: 4Q375 f1 i:7;
  • נבל, ‘foolish’: Ezek 13:3;
  • ראשׁון, ‘first, former’: Zech 1:4; 7:7, 12.

A.9 נביא occurs in parallel with

  • איש האלהים, ‘man of God’: 2 Kgs 6:12-23;
  • אישׁ הרוח, ‘man of the spirit, inspiration’: Hos 9:7;
  • משיח, ‘anointed one’: Ps 105:15; 1 Chron 16:22; 1QSa 9:11.

It is also used in parallel or in lists with other religious specialists:

  • חֹזֶה, ‘(court) diviner’: 2 Sam 24:11; Isa 29:10; Mic 3:1-12;
  • חֹלֵם, ‘dreamer’: Deut 13:2; Jer 27:9;
  • חֲרָשִׁים, ‘magician’: Isa 3:3;
  • כֹּהֵן, ‘priest’: 1 Kgs 1:8, 26, 32, 34, 38, 44, 45; 2 Kgs 23:2; Isa 28:7; Jer 2:8, 26; 4:9; 5:31; 6:13; 8:1, 10; 13:13; 14:18; 18:18; 23:11, 33, 34; 26:7, 8, 11, 16; 29:1; 32:32; Ezek 7:27; 22:25-26; Mic 3:11; Zeph 3:1-7; Zech 7:3; Lam 2:20; 4:13; Neh 6:32;
  • כַּשָּׁף, ‘sorcerer’: Jer 27:9;
  • נְבוֹן לָֽחַשׁ, ‘expert enchanter’: Isa 3:3;
  • נָזִיר, ‘nazarite’: Amos 2:11;
  • עֹנֵן, ‘diviner, fortune-tellers’: Jer 27:9;
  • קֹסֵם, ‘diviner’: Isa 3:2; Jer 27:9, 29:8; Mic 3:1-12;
  • רֹאֶה, ‘seer’: 1 Sam 9:9;
  • תֹפְשֵׂי הַתֹּרָה, ‘guardians of the Torah’: Jer 2:8.

A.10 The lexeme נָבִיא is used in lists containing other officials/groups:

  • אָב, ‘father’: Neh 9:32;
  • אִישׁ מִלְחָמָה, ‘warrior’: Isa 3:2;
  • בתולת ירושׁלם, ‘daughters of Jerusalem’: Lam 2:9-10;
  • גִבּוֹר, ‘soldier’: 1 Kgs 1:8; Isa 3:2;
  • זָקֵן, ‘elder’: Isa 3:2; Isa 9:14; Jer 29:1; Ezek 7:27; Lam 2:9-10;
  • חֲכַם, ‘wise’: Jer 18:18;
  • יוֹעֵץ, ‘counselor’: Isa 3:3;
  • מֶלֶךְ, ‘king’: Jer 2:26; 4:9; 8:1; 13:13; 32:32; Lam 2:9; Neh 9:32;
  • נְשׂוּא פָנִים, ‘dignitary’: Isa 3:3; 9:14;
  • כָל־עַמֶּךָ, ‘all your people’: Neh 9:32;
  • ראשׁ, ‘ruler, head’: Mic 3:11;
  • רֵעַ, ‘friend’: 1 Kgs 1:8;
  • שֹׁפֵט, ‘judge’: Isa 3:2; Zeph 3:3;
  • שַׂר, ‘prince’: Jer 2:26; 4:9; 8:1; 32:32; Ezek 22:25-27; Zeph 3:1-7; Lam 2:9; Neh 6:32;
  • שַֹר־חֲמִשִּׁים, ‘captain of fifty’: Isa 3:3.

A.11 Hos 9:8 interprets the נָבִיא as a פח while in Amos 7:14 the נביא stands in parallel with the two nouns בוֹקֵר and בוֹלֵס שִׁקְמִים.

A.12 The lexeme נָבִיא is linked to the deity/city to which it belongs either by it being the nomen regens in a construct connection with the deity/city (see above) or; less commonly; with the preposition לְ (1 Kgs 18:22; 22:7//2 Chron 18:6; 2 Kgs 3:11; 2 Chron 28:9).

4. Ancient Versions

‘No equivalent’ means that the versional text does not translate נביא, while ‘not extant’ means that the particular verse is not attested in that version at all.

a. Septuagint (LXX):

  • ἀποφθέγγομαι, ‘to make a pronouncement’: 1 Chron 25:1;
  • προφήτης, ‘prophet’: Gen 20:7; Exod 7:1; Num 11:29; 12:6, Deut 13:2, 4, 6; 18:15, 18, 20(2x), 22(2x); 34:10; Judg 6:8; 1 Sam 3:20; 9:9; 1 Sam 10:5, 10, 11(2x); 19:20, 24; 22:5; 28:6, 15; 2 Sam 7:2; 12:25; 24:11; 1 Kgs 1:8, 10, 22, 23, 32, 34, 38, 44, 45; 11:29; 13:11, 18, 20, 23, 25, 26, 29(2x); 16:12; 18:4(2x), 13(2x), 19(2x), 20, 22(2x), 25, 40; 19:1, 10, 14, 16; 20:13, 22, 35, 38, 41; 22:6, 7, 10, 12, 13, 22, 23; 2 Kgs 2:3, 5, 7, 15; 3:11, 13(1st); 4:1, 38(2x); 5:3, 8, 13, 22; 6:1, 12; 9:1(2x), 4, 7; 10:19; 14:25; 17:13(2x), 23; 19:2; 20:1, 11, 14; 21:10; 23:2, 18; 24:2; Isa 3:2; 9:14; 28:7; 29:10; 37:2; 38:1; 39:3; Jer 1:5; 2:8, 26, 30; 4:9; 5:13, 31; 7:25; 8:1; 13:13; 14:13, 14, 15(2x), 18; 18:18; 20:2; 23:9, 11, 13, 14, 15(2nd), 16, 21, 25, 26(1st), 28, 30, 31, 33, 34; 25:4; 26:5; 27:15, 16, 18; 28:8, 9(1st&3rd); 29:15; 32:32; 35:15; 37:19; 42:2; 43:6; 44:4; 45:1; 51:59; Ezek 2:5; 7:26; 13:2(1st); EzekLXX-b 13:2(2nd), 4, 9, 16; 14:4, 7, 9(2x), 10; 22:28; 33:33; 38:17; Hos 4:5; 6:5; 9:7, 8; 12:11(2x), 14(2x); Amos 2:11, 12; 3:7; 7:14(2x); Mic 3:5, 6, 11; Hab 1:1; 3:1; Zeph 3:4; Hag 1:1, 3, 12; 2:1, 10; Zech 1:1, 4, 5, 6, 7; 7:3, 7, 12; 8:9; 13:4, 5; Pss 51:2; 74:9; 105:15; Lam 2:9, 14, 20; 4:13; Dan 9:2, 6, 10; Ezra 9:11; Neh 6:7; 14(2nd); 9:26, 30, 32; 1 Chron 16:22; 17:1; 29:29; 2 Chron 9:29; 12:5, 15; 13:22; 15:8; 18:5, 6, 9, 11, 12, 21, 22; 20:20; 21:12; 24:19; 25:15, 16; 26:22; 28:9; 29:25(2x); 32:20, 32; 35:18; 36:12, 16;
  • προφητεύω, ‘to prophesy’: Jer 23:26(2nd); Ezek 13:3;
  • προφήτις, ‘prophetess’: Exod 15:20; Judg 4:4; 2 Kgs 22:14; Isa 8:3; Neh 6:14(1st); 2 Chron 34:22;
  • ψευδοπροφήτης, ‘false prophet’: Jer 6:13; 26:7, 8, 11, 16; 27:9; 28:1; 29:1(2x), 8, 15, 19, 29; 29:1(2nd), 15; Zech 13:2;
  • no equivalent 1 Kgs 14:2, 18; 16:7; 18:36, 13 (2nd); 8:10, Jer 23:15(1st), 37; 25:2; 29:1(1st), 19, 29; 32:2; 34:6; 36:8, 26; 37:2, 3, 6, 13; 38:9, 10, 14; 42:4; 46:1, 13; 47:1; 49:34; 50:1; EzekLXX-b 13:2(2nd); 22:25; Mal 3:23; Dan 9:24.

b. Peshitta (Pesh):

  • ܓܒܪܐ (gbrʾ ), ‘man’: 1 Kgs 18:20; Jer 23:37;
  • ܢܒܝ (nby) (verb), ‘to prophesy’: Ezek 13:2(2nd);
  • ܢܒܝܐ (nbyʾ ), ‘prophet’: Gen 20:7; Num 11:29; 12:6; Deut 13:2, 4, 6; 18:15, 18, 20(2x), 22(2x); 34:10; Judg 6:8; 1 Sam 3:20; 9:9; 1 Sam 10:5, 10, 11(2x); 19:20, 24; 22:5; 28:6, 15; 2 Sam 7:2; 12:25; 24:11; 1 Kgs 1:8, 10, 22, 23, 32, 34, 38, 44, 45; 11:29; 13:11, 18, 20, 23, 25, 26, 29(2x); 14:2, 18; 16:7, 12; 18:4(2x), 13(2x), 19(2x), 22(2x), 25, 36, 40; 19:1, 10, 14, 16; 20:13, 22, 35, 38, 41; 22:6, 7, 10, 12, 13, 22, 23; 2 Kgs 2:3, 5, 7, 15; 3:11, 13(2x); 4:1, 38(2x); 5:3, 8, 13, 22; 6:1, 12; 9:1(2x), 4, 7; 10:19; 14:25; 17:13(2x), 23; 19:2; 20:1, 11, 14; 21:10; 23:2, 18; 24:2; Isa 3:2; 9:14; 28:7; 29:10; 37:2; 38:1; 39:3; Jer 1:5; 2:8, 26, 30; 4:9; 5:13, 31; 6:13; 7:25; 8:1, 10; 13:13; 14:13, 14, 15(2x), 18; 18:18; 20:2; 23:9, 11, 13, 14, 15(2x), 16, 21, 25, 26(1st), 28, 30, 31, 33, 34; 25:2, 4; 26:5, 7, 8, 11, 16; 27:9, 14, 15, 16, 18; 28:1, 5(2x), 8, 9(3x), 10(2x), 11, 12(2x), 15(2x), 17; 32:2, 32; 34:6; 35:15; 36:8, 26; 37:2, 3, 6, 13, 19; 38:9, 14; 42:4; 43:6; 44:4; 46:1, 13; 47:1; 49:34; 50:1; 51:59; Ezek 2:5; 7:26; 13:2(1st), 3, 4, 9, 16; 14:4, 7, 9(2x), 10; 22:25, 28; 33:33; 38:17; Hos 4:5; 6:5; 9:7, 8; 12:11(2x), 14(2x); Amos 2:11, 12; 3:7; 7:14(2x); Mic 3:5, 6, 11; Hab 1:1; 3:1; Zeph 3:4; Hag 1:1, 3, 12; 2:1, 10; Zech 1:1, 4, 5, 6, 7; 7:3, 7, 12; 8:9; 13:2, 4, 5; Mal 3:23; Pss 74:9; 105:15; Lam 2:9, 14, 20; 4:13; Dan 9:2, 6, 10, 24; 1 Chron 16:22; 17:1; 29:29; 2 Chron 13:22; 15:8; 18:5, 6, 9, 11, 12, 21, 22; 20:20; 21:12; 24:19; 25:15, 16; 26:22; 28:9; 29:25(2x); 32:20, 32; 35:18; 36:12, 16;
  • ܢܒܝܬܐ (nbytʾ ), ‘prophetess’: Exod 15:20; Judg 4:4; 2 Kgs 22:14; Isa 8:3; 2 Chron 34:22;
  • ܢܒܝܘܬܐ (nbywtʾ ), ‘prophecy’: Jer 23:26 (2nd);
  • no equivalent: 1 Chron 25:1; 2 Chron 12:15;
  • not extant: Jer 28:6; 38:10; 42:2; 45:1; Ps 51:2; Ezra 9:11; Neh 6:7, 14(2x); 9:26, 30, 32; 2 Chron 9:29; 12:5.

c. Targum (Tg):24

  • נבי (ethpeel), ‘to prophesy’: Jer 23:26(2nd); Ezek 13:2(2nd); 1 Chron 25:1;
  • נבי (noun), ‘prophet’: Gen 20:7; Exod 7:1PsJ; Num 11:29; 12:6; DeutO 13:2, 4, 6; Deut 18:15, 18, 20(2x); DeutO,N 18:22(2x); Deut 34:10; Judg 6:8; 1 Sam 9:9; 22:5; 2 Sam 7:2; 12:25, 24:11; 1 Kgs 1:8, 10, 22, 23, 32, 34, 38, 44, 45; 11:29; 13:18, 20, 23, 26; 14:2, 18, 16:7, 12; 18:4(2x), 13(2x), 19(2x), 22(2x), 25, 36, 40, 1 KgsJ 19:10, 14, 16; 20:13, 22, 35, 38, 41; 22:7, 23, 2 Ki 2:3, 5, 7, 15; 3:11, 13(2x); 4:1, 38(2x); 5:3, 8, 13, 22; 6:1, 12; 9:1(2x), 4, 7; 10:19; 14:25; 17:13(2nd), 23; 19:2; 20:1, 11, 14; 21:10; 24:2; Isa 29:10; 37:2; 38:1; 39:3; Jer 1:5; 2:30; 7:25; 20:2; 23:13, 14, 15(2nd), 28; 25:2, 4; 26:5; 27:18; 28:5(1st), 6, 8, 9(3x), 10(2nd), 11, 12(2nd), 15(1st); 32:2; 34:6; 35:15; 36:8, 26; 37:2, 3, 6, 13; 38:9, 10, 14; 42:2, 4; 43:6; 44:4: 45:1; 46:1, 13; 47:1; 49:34; 50:1; 51:59; Ezek 2:5; 13:2(1st), 3, 4, 9, 16; 14:4, 7, 9(2x); 22:25; 33:33; 38:17; Hos 6:5; 9:7, 8; 12:11(2x), 14(2x); Amos 2:11, 12; 3:7; 7:14(2x); Mic 3:5, 6, 11; Hab 1:1; 3:1; Zeph 3:4; Hag 1:1, 3, 12; 2:1, 10; Zech 1:1, 4, 5, 6, 7; 7:7, 12; 8:9; 13:5; Mal 3:23; Pss 51:2; 74:9; 105:15; Lam 2:9, 20; 1 Chron 16:22; 17:1; 29:29; 2 Chron 9:29; 12:5, 15; 13:22; 15:8; 18:5, 6, 21, 22; 20:20; 21:12; 24:19; 25:15, 16; 26:22; 28:9; 29:25(2x); 32:20, 32; 35:18; 36:12, 16;
  • נבי שקר, ‘false prophet’: DeutPsJ,N 13:2, 4, 6; DeutPsJ 22(2x); 1 Kgs 13:11, 18, 20, 25, 29(2x); 19:1; 22:6, 10, 12, 13, 22; 2 Kgs 23:18;25 Jer 2:8, 26; 4:9; 5:13, 31; 8:1; 13:13; 14:13, 14, 15(2x); 23:9, 15(1st), 16, 21, 25, 26(1st), 30, 31; 27:9, 14, 15, 16; 28:1, 5(2nd), 10(1st), 12(1st), 15(2nd), 17; 32:32; 37:19; Ezek 14:10; 22:28; Hos 4:5; Zech 13:2, 4; Lam 2:14; 4:13; 2 Chron 18:9, 11, 12;
  • נביאה, ‘prophetess’: Exod 15:20; Judg 4:4; 2 Kgs 22:14; Isa 8:3; 2 Chron 34:22;
  • מתורגמן, ‘interpreter’: ExodO 7:1;
  • ספר, ‘scribe’: 1 Sam 10:5, 10, 11(2x); 19:20, 24; 28:6, 15; 2 Kgs 17:13 (1st); 23:2;26 Isa 3:2; 9:14; 28:7; 29:10; Jer 6:13; 8:18; 18:18; 23:11, 33, 34; 26:7, 8, 11, 16; Ezek 7:26; Zech 7:3;
  • פתגמי נבואתא, ‘decrees of prophesy’: 1 Sam 3:20;
  • תרגמן, ‘interpreter’: ExodN 7:1;
  • no equivalent: Dan 9:2, 6, 10, 24; Ezra 9:11; Neh 6:7, 14(2x); 9:26, 30, 32.

d. Vulgate (Vg):

  • Propheta/tes, ‘prophet(s)’: Gen 20:7; Exod 7:1; Num 12:6; Deut 13:2, 4, 6; 18:15, 18, 20, 22(2x); 34:10; Judg 6:8; 1 Sam 3:20; 9:9, 10:5, 10, 11(2x); 19:20, 24; 22:5; 28:6, 15; 2 Sam 7:2; 12:25; 24:11; 1 Kgs 1:8, 10, 22, 23, 32, 34, 38, 44, 45; 11:29; 13:11, 18, 20, 23, 25, 29(2x); 14:2, 18; 16:7, 12; 18:4(2x), 13(2x), 19(2x), 20, 22(2x), 25, 36, 40; 19:1, 10, 14, 16; 20:13, 22, 35, 38, 41; 22:6, 7, 10, 12, 13, 22, 23; 2 Kgs 2:3, 5, 7, 11, 13(2x), 15; 4:1, 38(2x); 5:3, 8, 13, 22; 6:1, 12; 9:1(2x), 4, 7; 10:19; 14:25; 17:13(2x), 23; 19:2; 20:1, 11, 14; 21:10; 23:2, 18; 24:2; Isa 3:2; 9:14; 28:7; 29:10; 37:2; 38:1; 39:3; Jer 1:5; 2:8, 26, 30; 4:9; 6:13; 7:25; 8:1, 10; 13:13; 14:13, 14, 15(2x), 18; 18:18; 20:2; 23:9, 11, 13, 14, 15(2x), 16, 21, 25, 26(1st), 28, 30, 31, 33, 34, 37; 25:2, 4; 26:5, 7, 8, 11, 16; 27:9, 14, 15, 16, 18; 28:1, 5(2x), 6, 8, 9(1st&3rd), 10(2x), 12(2x), 15(2x), 17; 32:2, 32; 34:6; 35:15; 36:8, 26; 37:2, 3, 6, 13, 19; 38:9, 10, 14; 42:2, 4; 43:6; 44:4; 45:1; 46:1, 13; 47:1; 49:34; 50:1; 51:59; Ezek 2:5; 7:26; 13:2(1st), 3, 4, 9, 16; 14:4, 7, 9(2x), 10; 22:25, 28; 33:33; 38:17; Hos 4:5; 6:5; 9:7, 8; 12:11(2x), 14(2x); Amos 2:11, 12; 3:7; 7:14(2x); Mic 3:5, 6, 11; Hab 1:1; 3:1; Zeph 3:4; Hag 1:1, 3, 12; 2:1, 10; Zech 1:1, 4, 5, 6, 7; 7:3, 7, 12; 8:9; 13:2, 4, 5; Mal 3:23; Pss 51:2; 74:9; 105:15; Lam 2:9, 14, 20; 4:13; Dan 9:2, 6, 10, 24; Ezra 9:11; Neh 6:7, 14(2nd); 9:26, 30, 32; 1 Chron 16:22; 17:1; 29:29; 2 Chron 9:29; 12:5, 15; 13:22; 15:8; 18:5, 6, 9, 11, 12, 21, 22; 20:20; 21:12; 24:19; 25:15, 16; 26:22; 28:9; 29:25(2x); 32:20, 32; 35:18; 36:12, 16;
  • prophetere, ‘to prophesy’: Num 11:29; 13:2(2nd); 1 Chron 25:1;
  • prophetis, ‘prophetess’: Exod 15:20; Judg 4:4; 2 Kgs 22:14; Isa 8:3; Neh 6:14(1st); 2 Chron 34:22.

A.1 In Deut 18:20 the Vulgate uses an implicit subject in the verb interficietur, ‘he shall die’, instead of repeating propheta.

A.2 In 1 Kgs 13:26 most Targum manuscripts have two times נבי, for MT נָבִיא and אִישׁ הָאֶלֹהִים. In order to make the distinction easier between these two men in the Targum two manuscripts add שקר to the first נבי.27

A.3 1 KgsLXX 12:24, where 1 KgsMT 14:2, 8 is narrated in the LXX, is one of the verses in which LXX goes its own way. MT is contained in that verse, but there is no equivalent for the title נביא in the Greek.

A.4 In 1 Kgs 18:20 most Tg manuscripts render נבי שקר, while Codex Reuchlianus has simply נבי.

A.5 The Tg Toseftot have a longer text here which uses נבי and נביא שקרא.

A.6 The Tg/Tg Toseftot to 1 Kgs 22:22 expand the relevant verse. Essentially they render Heb. נָבִיא with נבי שקר.

A.7 In 2 Kgs 3:13 the LXX only translates the ‘prophets of your father’ but leaves out the ‘prophets of your mother’.

A.8 Tg Isa 29:10 translates אֶת־הַנְּבִיאִים as יָת נְבִיַיָא (ויָת) סַפרַיָא, using both the normal translation in Isaiah and the more common general translation.

A.9 MT stands alone in the second attestation of נביא in Jer 23:26. All versions render with a participle or a finite form of a verb meaning ‘to prophesy’.

A.10 In Ezek 13:2 the LXX offers two variant traditions, with Vaticanus following MT and the other manuscripts offering a shorter text which leaves out the word ‘prophet’.

A.11 The ketiv of 1 Chron 25:1 clearly has הנביאים, ‘the prophets’, but the qere goes with LXX, Tg, and Vg, which offer verbal forms here. Pesh has a divergent text here.

5. Lexical/Semantic Field(s)

A.1 It is clear that the Hebrew root √נבא is connected to divination, understood here to include both technical (e.g. haruspicy, dream interpretation) and more intuitive (prophecy, dreaming) kinds of divination. Traditionally, it has been understood to refer to prophecy, but it is not always clear which form of divination is referred to (Schniedewind 1995:36-37; Floyd 2006:3; Jassen 2007:27).

A.2 It is used in parallel with a number of religious specialists: איש האלהים, אישׁ הרוח, משיח, חֹזֶה, חֹלֵם, כֹּהֵן, כַּשָּׁף, נְבוֹן לָֽחַשׁ, עֹנֵן, קֹסֵם, רֹאֶה, and the תֹפְשֵׂי הַתֹּרָה, but also with less religious roles such as the חֲרָשִׁים and נָזִיר (see §3. Syntagmatics A.9 above for attestations). This wide array of different roles shows the range of possible understandings. The fact that many of these titles are within the divinatory realm shows that this is the most obvious place to find the semantics of the word. In particular 1 Sam 9:9 is often interpreted as an old text and taken at face value.28

A.3 Interestingly, the נביא is often used in parallel with other members of the elite, such as priests, or even the נזיר, suggesting that the נביא is counted among these.

A.4 Until a 1960 article by Alfred Jepsen the consensus view was that the feminine form נביאה did not denote a female prophet but could refer to the wife of a male prophet.29 As Jepsen argues, this is unlikely as in ancient Hebrew feminine titles are not conferred due to a woman’s marriage, but only because of a role she herself carries out.

6. Exegesis

A.1 Most scholars understand the term נביא to refer to prophecy of all kinds.30 Jeremias (1976:7-8) asks the important question whether נביא is to be regarded as a professional title or a term describing behaviour. Not surprisingly his answer is that in different regions and times it had a different meaning but that the Hebrew Bible does not provide us with enough evidence to decide that.

A.2 There is a debate as to the connection between ecstasy and the נביא, some pointing to the connection with groups of נביאים in the Deuteronomistic History and links to ecstatic phenomena elsewhere in the ancient Near East and elsewhere in the anthropological record.31 Often it is assumed that pre-classical נביאים were generally ecstatics while that aspect lost its importance with the so-called Writing Prophets, most of whom do not bear the title.32 This interpretation is often supported by an analysis of the verbal forms of נבא: usually the interpretation goes according to the following outline. The hithpaʿel is seen as occurring in early texts to denote ecstatic behaviour while the niphʿal is used to express understandable oracular speech. As the hithpaʿel is used less and less it starts to merge in meaning with the niphʿal.33

A.3 1 Sam 9:9 claims that נביא is a modern term for what used to be called רֹאֶה, and most biblical scholars take this claim on board at face value. In contrast, in Amos 7, Amaziah refers to Amos as a חֹזֶה, which Amos does not deny; in his answer he claims in something of a non-sequitur, that he is not a נביא. If the story is to be taken as a coherent whole, then we have to assume that to its author, the two terms חֹזֶה and נביא are somehow similar. This, in turn, indicates that the three terms have to some extent lost their differences, which suggests that either the terms were always very similar, or that the author of Amos 7 uses them in a way that is reminiscent of 1-2 Chrononicles.34

A.4 Due to his analysis of most of the Deuteronomistic History as ‘Ephraimite’, and thus Northern texts, Wilson (1980) takes נביא to be an Israelite rather than Judean term (see also Petersen 1981:51-69; Zobel 1985:87).

A.5 Because of its etymological explanation as a verbal adjective of the root √נבא with the meaning ‘called’, theological interpretations of the נביא tend to emphasise the aspect of the prophet ‘called’ to office by their deity (Würthwein 1950:24-28).

A.6 Ever since Mowinckel’s magisterial study on the Psalms prophecy in the Hebrew Bible, נביא has also been connected to the cult in the form of cultic prophecy.35 The idea has been taken up enthusiastically, but there are few connections between it and the noun נביא, apart from the three Psalmists, Asaph, Heman and Yeduthun, who are referred to as נביאים in 1 Chron 25.36 That the singers in the temple are said ‘to prophesy’ (use of verb הנבא) is striking, and suggests that the verb could be used with a wide meaning indeed. This connects with the tendency by the Chronicler to use divinatory titles more freely and also to attribute his sources to the writing activity of prophets.37

A.7 It is striking that in Genesis-Numbers the term נביא is used only five times (4x נביא, 1x נביאה), once for Abraham (Gen 20:7), once for Aaron (Exod 7:1), once for Miriam (Exod 15:20), in Moses’ wish that all Israelites were prophets (Num 11:29) and once to describe how to recognize a prophet (Num 12:6). The title is only indirectly attributed to Moses, traditionally the prophet par excellence, in the announcement that never again was there a prophet like Moses (Deut 34:10).

B.1 Winckler states that the נביא is best understood as a ‘Sachwalter’ (‘royal minister’) comparing the prophet to Herod’s historian Nicolaus of Damascus.38

B.2 Junge suggests interpreting the nbʾ in the Lachish letters as a normal messenger.39 Müller’s sympathies (Müller 1970:240-42) for the position are well critiqued by Barstad (1993:9*): there is simply no indication in the text that the nbʾ is anything but a prophet.

7. Conclusions

In its totality, it appears impossible to define the meaning of the term נביא in the Hebrew Bible because it is so different in the literary evidence available to us today. It appears clear that the ecstatic groups of prophets in the Former Prophets are different from those people referred to with the Deuteronomistic expression ‘my servants the prophets’. It is not even clear whether all of its references necessarily refer to prophecy as opposed to non-intuitive forms of divination – the narratives about Nathan, for example, are not specific enough to enable us to tell how he received his messages and therefore what form of a diviner he was.

According to 1-2 Kings groups of נביאים existed in the texts, some connected to ecstasy – but without any recognisable link to divination – others connected to Elijah and Elisha – but with little connection to prophecy. The frequency with which the נביא is mentioned with the elites of the people in those writings set around the end of the Judean monarchy and exile suggest that the נביא was part of the establishment of Judean society, while it seems difficult to connect the writing prophets with this title, as they seem to avoid it, apart, perhaps, from Jeremiah, as even the earlier LXX text uses the title for Jeremiah.

A development appears to be obvious in which later writers use the terms נביא, חזה and ראה almost indiscriminately while earlier authors make more of a difference between them. However, this development is not linear, so that it cannot on its own be used for dating purposes. It follows that נביא is eventually used simply to denote any form of legitimate diviner within the Hebrew Bible.

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For the abbreviations see the List of Abbreviations.

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Karl Elliger, ‘Die Ostraka von Lachish’, Palästinajahrbuch 36:45-46.
Erbt 1909
Wilhelm Erbt, ‘Nabiʾ, der Sachwalter’, OLZ 12:252.
Falk 1969
Zeev Falk, ‘‘Writing the Words of Prophecy’ (Isaiah 8)’ (in Hebrew), Beth Mikra 14:28-36.
Feldmann 1925
Franz Feldmann, Das Buch Iasias: Übersetzt und erklärt (Exegetisches Handbuch zum Alten Testament, 14), Münster: Aschendorff.
Fenton 1997
Terry L. Fenton, ‘Deuteronomistic Advocacy of the Nābî’: 1 Samuel ix 9 and Questions of Israelite Prophecy’, VT 47:23-42.
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Irmtraud Fischer, Gotteskünderinnen: Zu einer geschlechterfairen Deutung des Phänomens der Prophetie und der Prophetinnen in der Hebräischen Bibel, Stuttgart: Kohlhammer.
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Daniel E. Fleming, ‘The Etymological Origins of the Hebrew nabîʾ: The One Who Invokes God’, CBQ 55:217-224.
Fleming 1993b
Daniel E. Fleming, ‘LÚ and MEŠ in na-bi-imeš and its Mari Brethren’, NABU 1993, §4.
Fleming 1993c
Daniel E. Fleming, ‘Nābû and Munabbiātu: Two New Syrian Religious Personnel’, JAOS 113:175-183.
Fleming 2004
Daniel E. Fleming, ‘Prophets and Temple Personnel in the Mari Archives’, in: Lester L. Grabbe and Alice O. Bellis (eds.), The Priests in the Prophets: The Portrayal of Priests, Prophets, and Other Religious Specialists in the Latter Prophets (JSOTSup, 408) London: T&T Clark, 44-64.
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Michael H. Floyd, ‘Introduction’, in: M.H. Floyd and R.D. Haak (eds.), Prophets, Prophecy, and Prophetic Texts in Second Temple Judaism (LHBOTS, 427), New York: T&T Clark, 1-25.
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Georg Fohrer, Geschichte der israelitischen Religion, Berlin: De Gruyter.
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Joshua Fox, Semitic Noun Patterns (HSS, 52) Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns.
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Hartmut Gese, ‘Zur Geschichte der Kultsänger am zweiten Tempel’, in: O. Betz, M. Hengel, and P. Schmidt (eds.), Abraham unser Vater: Juden und Christen im Gespräch über die Bibel. Festschrift für Otto Michel zum 60. Geburtstag (Arbeiten zur Geschichte des Spätjudentums und Urchristentums, 5) Leiden: Brill, 222-34.
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John C. L. Gibson, Textbook of Syrian Semitic Inscriptions, Oxford: Clarendon.
Gonçalves 2001
Francolino J. Gonçalves, ‘Les ‘Prophètes Écrivains’ étaient-ils des נביאים?’, in: P. M. M. Daviau, J. W. Wevers, and M. Weigl (eds.), World of the Aramaeans: Biblical Studies in Honour of Paul-Eugène Dion, vol. 1 (JSOTSup, 324), Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 144-85.
Görg 1982
Manfred Görg, ‘Der Nabiʾ - ‘Berufener’ oder ‘Seher’’, BN 17:23-25.
Görg 1983
Manfred Görg, ‘Weiteres zur Etymologie von nabîʾ’, BN 22:9-11.
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Manfred Görg, ‘Randbemerkungen zum jüngsten Lexikonartikel zu nabîʾ’, BN 29:22-27.
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Manfred Görg, ‘Addenda zur Diskussion um nābīʾ’, BN, 25-26.
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Hermann Grapow and Wolja Erichsen, Wörterbuch der Ägyptischen Sprache: Die Belegstellen, Leipzig: Hinrichs.
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George Buchanan Gray, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Isaiah, 1-39 (ICC), New York: Scribner’s Sons.
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Geoffrey W. Grogan, ‘Isaiah’, in: F. E. Gaebelein and R. P. Polcyn (eds.), The Expositor’s Bible Commentary: With the New International Version of the Holy Bible, Vol. 6 (Isaiah-Ezekiel), Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 3-355.
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Frauke Gröndahl, Die Personennamen der Texte aus Ugarit (Studia Pohl, 1), Rom: Päpstliches Bibelinstitut.
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Alfred Guillaume, Prophecy and Divination Among the Hebrews and other Semites (Bampton Lectures 1938), London: Hodder & Stoughton.
Gunneweg 1959
Antonius H. J. Gunneweg, Mündliche und schriftliche Tradition der vorexilischen Prophetenbücher als Problem der neueren Prophetenforschung (FRLANT, 73), Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.
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Heinrich Friedrich Hackermann, ‘Die geistigen Abnormitäten der alttestamentlichen Propheten’, Nieuw Theologisch Tijdschrift 23:26-48.
Haeussermann 1932
Friedrich Haeussermann, Wortempfang und Symbol in der alttestamentlichen Prophetie: Eine Untersuchung zur Psychologie des prophetischen Erlebnisses (BZAW, 58), Giessen: Töpelmann.
Haldar 1945
Alfred Ossian Haldar, Associations of Cult Prophets Among the Ancient Semites, Uppsala: Almqvist & Wiksell.
Hempel 1936
Johannes Hempel, Hebräisches Wörterbuch zu Jesaja (Einzelwörterbücher zum Alten Testament, Heft 2), Berlin: Alfred Töpelmann.
Herntrich 1957
Volkmar Herntrich, Der Prophet Jesaja: Kapitel 1-12 (ATD, 17), Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.
Heschel 1962
Abraham Joshua Heschel, The Prophets, New York: Harper & Row.
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John W. Hilber, Cultic Prophecy in the Psalms (BZAW, 352), Berlin: De Gruyter.
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Gustav Diedrich H. Hölscher, Die Profeten: Untersuchungen zur Religionsgeschichte Israels, Leipzig: Hinrichs.
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Raymond de Hoop, ‘The Meaning of pḥz in Classical Hebrew’, ZAH 10:16–26.
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Raymond de Hoop, ‘‘Treacherous as Water’ (Gen 49.4)? The Stem פחז in the Hebrew Bible’, BT 74:256–67.
Huehnergard 1999
John Huehnergard, ‘On the Etymology and Meaning of Hebrew NĀBÎʾ ’, EI 26:88*-93*.
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Ivar Hylander, ‘War Jesaja Nabi?’, Le Monde Oriental 25:53-66.
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Walter Jacobi, Die Ekstase der alttestamentlichen Propheten, München: Bergmann.
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Alex P. Jassen, Mediating the Divine: Prophecy and Revelation in the Dead Sea Scrolls and Second Temple Judaism (STDJ, 68), Leiden: Brill.
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Ann Jeffers, Magic and Divination in Ancient Palestine and Syria (SHANE, 8), Leiden: Brill.
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Alfred Jepsen, Nabi: Soziologische Studien zur alttestamentlichen Literatur und Religionsgeschichte, München: Beck.
Jepsen 1960
Alfred Jepsen, ‘Die Nebiah in Jes 8, 3’, ZAW 72:267-68.
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Jörg Jeremias, ‘נָבִיא, nābiʾ – Prophet’, THAT 2:7-26.
Jeremias 2003
Jörg Jeremias, ‘Prophet/Prophetin/Prophetie’, RGG 4 6:1692-715.
Johnson 1962
Aubrey Rodway Johnson, The Cultic Prophet in Ancient Israel, Cardiff: University of Wales Press.
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Aubrey Rodway Johnson, The Cultic Prophet and Israel’s Psalmody, Cardiff: University of Wales Press.
Junge 1937
Ehrhard Junge, Der Wiederaufbau des Heerwesens des Reiches Juda unter Josia (BWANT, 75), Stuttgart: Kohlhammer.
Junker 1927
Hubert Junker, Prophet und Seher in Israel: Eine Untersuchung über die ältesten Erscheinungen des israelitischen Prophetentums, insbesondere der Prophetenvereine, Trier: Paulinus.
Kaiser 1960
Otto Kaiser, Der Prophet Jesaja: Kapitel 1-12 (ATD, 17), Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.
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Edward Joseph Kissane, The Book of Isaiah: Translated from a Critically Revised Hebrew Text with Commentary, Vol. 1 (1-39), Dublin: Browne and Nolan.
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Rudolf Kittel, Geschichte des Volkes Israel, Bd. 2: Das Volk in Kanaan: Geschichte der Zeit bis zum babylonischen Exil (Handbücher der alten Geschichte, 1.Ser., 3.Abt.), Gotha: Klotz.
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John Kleinig, The Lord’s Song: The Basis, Function and Significance of Choral Music in Chronicles (JSOTSup, 156), Sheffield: JSOT Press.
Knobl 1872
August Wilhelm Knobl, Der Prophet Jesaia (Kurzgefasstes exegetisches Handbuch zum Alten Testament, 5), Leipzig: Hirzel.
Koch 1996
Klaus Koch, ‘Propheten/Prophetie, II: In Israel und seiner Umwelt’, TRE 27:477-99.
König 1882
Eduard König, Der Offenbarungsbegriff des Alten Testamentes, Leipzig: Hinrichs.
König 1907
Eduard König, ‘Bezeichnet der Nabîʾ in Jes. 3,2 usw. den ‘Sachwalter’?’, ZAW 27:60-68.
König 1926
Eduard König, Das Buch Jesaja: eingeleitet, übersetzt und erklärt, Gütersloh: Bertelsmann.
Kuenen 1877
Abraham Kuenen, The Prophets and Prophecy in Israel: An Historical and Critical Enquiry, London: Longmans, Green.
Land 1868
Jan P.N. Land, ‘Over den godsnaam יהוה en den titel נביא’, Theologisch Tijdschrift 2:156-75.
Lindblom 1958
Johannes Lindblom, ‘Zur Frage des kanaanäischen Ursprungs des altisraelitischen Prophetismus’, in: J. Hempel and L. Rost (eds.), Von Ugarit nach Qumran: Beiträge zur alttestamentlichen und altorientalischen Forschung (BZAW, 77), Berlin: Töpelmann, 89-104.
Lindblom 1962
Johannes Lindblom, Prophecy in Ancient Israel, Oxford: Blackwell.
Lofthouse 1924
W. F. Lofthouse, ‘Thus Hath Jahveh Said’, AJSL 40:231-51.
Mánek 1962
Jindřich Mánek, ‘Propheten’, BHH 3:1496-512.
Marti 1900
Carl Marti, Das Buch Jesaia erklärt (Kurzer Hand-Commentar zum Alten Testament, 10), Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.
McCarter 1980
P. Kyle McCarter, I Samuel: A New Translation, with Introduction, Notes and Commentary (AB, 8), Garden City: Doubleday.
Meek 1950
Theophile James Meek, Hebrew Origins, New York: Harper.
Micheel 1983
Rosemarie Micheel, Die Seher- und Prophetenüberlieferungen in der Chronik (BBET, 18), Frankfurt am Main: Lang.
Mowinckel 1923
Sigmund O. P. Mowinckel, Psalmenstudien III: Kultprophetie und Prophetische Psalmen (Videnskabsselskabets skrifter II, Historisk-filosofiske klasse 1922/1), Kristiania: Dybwad.
Müller 1970
Hans-Peter Müller, ‘Notizen zu Althebräischen Inschriften I’, UF 2:229-42.
Müller 1984
Hans-Peter Müller, ‘נָבִיא nābiʾ’, ThWAT 5:140-63.
Müller 1985
Hans-Peter Müller, ‘Zur Herleitung von nābîʾ’, BN 29:22-27.
Müller 1986
Walter W. Müller, ‘Südsemitische Marginalien zur Etymologie von nābiʾ’, BN 32:31-37.
Neher 1981
André Neher, Amos: Contribution à l’étude du prophétisme (Bibliothéque d’histoire de la philosophie), Paris: Vrin.
Newsome 1973
James D. Newsome, ‘The Chronicler’s View of Prophecy’, PhD diss., Vanderbilt University.
Von Orelli 1887
Hans Conrad von Orelli, Die Propheten Jesaja und Jeremia (Kurzgefasster Kommentar zu den heiligen Schriften Alten und Neuen Testaments: Altes Testament), Nördlingen: Beck.
Parker 1978
Simon B. Parker, ‘Possession Trance and Prophecy in Pre-Exilic Israel’, VT 28:271-85.
Pentiuc 2001
Eugen J. Pentiuc, West Semitic Vocabulary in the Akkadian Texts from Emar (HSS, 49), Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns.
Petersen 1976
David L. Petersen, Late Israelite Prophecy: Studies in Deutero-Prophetic Literature and in Chronicles, Missoula: Scholars.
Petersen 1981
David L. Petersen, The Roles of Israel’s Prophets (JSOTSup, 17), Sheffield: JSOT Press.
Pfeiffer 1947
Robert Henry Pfeiffer, ‘The Growth of Old Testament Religion’, Shane Quarterly 8:7-31.
Plöger 1951
Otto Plöger, ‘Priester und Prophet’, ZAW 63:157-92.
Proksch 1930
Otto Proksch, Jesaja I übersetzt und erklärt: erste Hälfte Kapitel 1-39 (KAT, 9.1), Leipzig: Deichert.
Puukko 1935
A.F. Puukko, ‘Ekstatische Propheten mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der finnisch-ugrischen Parallelen’, ZAW 43:23-35.
Von Rad 1930
Gerhard von Rad, Das Geschichtsbild des chronistischen Werkes (BWANT, 54), Stuttgart: Kohlhammer.
Von Rad 1958
Gerhard von Rad, Theologie des Alten Testaments, Bd. 2: Die Theologie der prophetischen Überlieferungen Israels, München: Kaiser.
Ramlot 1972
Léon Ramlot, ‘Prophétisme: La Bible’, DB.S 8:909-1222.
Rendtorff 1959
Rolf Rendtorff, ‘προφήτης κτλ B. נָבִיא im Alten Testament’, ThWNT 6:796-813.
Rendtorff 1968
Rolf Rendtorff, ‘προφητης κτλ. B. נביא in the Old Testament’, TDNT 6:796-812.
Reynolds 1935
C. B. Reynolds, ‘Isaiah’s Wife’, JTS 36:182-85.
Rinaldi 1963
Giovanni Rinaldi, ‘Profetismo: gruppo di studio’, RivBibIt 11:396-99.
Rudolph 1955
Wilhelm Rudolph, Chronikbücher (Handbuch zum Alten Testament. Erste Reihe 21), Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.
Schniedewind 1995
William M. Schniedewind, The Word of God in Transition: From Prophet to Exegete in the Second Temple Period (JSOTSup, 197), Sheffield: Sheffield Academic.
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Isaac L. Seeligmann, ‘Die Auffassung von der Prophetie in der deuteronomistischen und chronistischen Geschichtsschreibung (mit einem Exkurs über das Buch Jeremia)’, in: John A. Emerton (ed.), Congress Volume: Göttingen, 1977 (SVT, 29), Leiden: Brill, 254-284. Repr. in: Shemaryahu Talmon (ed.), Literary Studies in the Hebrew Bible: Form and Content: Collected Studies, Jerusalem: Magnes; Leiden: Brill, 1993, 11-49 (slightly emended form).
Shepherd 1962
M. H. Shepherd Jr., ‘Prophet, Prophetism’, IDB 3:896-920.
Skinner 1915
John Skinner, Isaiah: Chapters 1-39: In the Revised Version: With Introduction and Notes, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Smend 1893
Rudolf Smend, Lehrbuch der alttestamentlichen Religionsgeschichte (Sammlung theologischer Lehrbücher), Freiburg i.B.: Mohr.
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J. M. Powis Smith and William Andrew Irwin, The Prophets and Their Times, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Smith 1895
William Robertson Smith, The Prophets of Israel and their Place in History, to the Close of the 8th Century B.C.: 8 Lectures, London: Hodder and Stoughton.
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J. Alberto Soggin, The Prophet Amos: A Translation and Commentary (OTL), London: SCM.
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Hayim Ben Yosef Tawil, An Akkadian Lexical Companion for Biblical Hebrew: Etymological-Semantic and Idiomatic Equivalents with Supplement on Biblical Aramaic, Jersey City: KTAV.
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C. H. Thomson and John Skinner Isaiah 1-39, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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Harry Torczyner [Naphtali H. Tur-Sinai], ‘Das literarische Problem der Bibel’, ZDMG 85:287-324.
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Harry Torczyner et al., Lachish I (Tell ed Duweir): The Lachish Letters, London: Oxford University Press.
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Raymond Jacques Tournay, Seeing and Hearing God with the Psalms: The Prophetic Liturgy of the Second Temple in Jerusalem (JSOTSup, 118), Sheffield: JSOT Press.
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Benjamin Uffenheimer, ‘Prophecy, Ecstasy, and Sympathy’, in: John A. Emerton (ed.), Congress Volume: Jerusalem 1986 (SVT, 40), Leiden: Brill, 257-69.
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Hans Wildberger, Jesaja 1-12 (BKAT, X/1), Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener.
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Notes


  1. For the publication of this text see Yardeni and Elizur (2007:104-05). 

  2. The Damascus Document and the Community Rule are treated as one document here and therefore attestations in various documents are counted as if they are one. 4Q265 on the other hand will be counted as an independent source. The same is true for the various works called Apocryphon of Jeremiah as it is at this point unclear whether they form one coherent composition or are better understood to evidence various different literary works. 

  3. The occurrences in the actual manuscripts are 4Q266 f3i:7, f3iii:18 and 4Q269 f5:1. 

  4. The actual occurrences are 1Q28b 1:27, 4Q255 f1:4 and 4Q258 6:8. 

  5. Aharoni (1968). Two imprints of this bullae, dated to the late 7th century, were found at Lachish. See also Aharoni (1975:21-22, pl. 20:6-7). 

  6. Avigad (1975:71 (no. 20), pl.14:20; 1985:305 (no.3), pl.57; and 1990:91-92 (no.4). 

  7. In Biblical Hebrew the root appears as √nb’. In comparative Semitics, the root is given as √nby, √nbi or √nb. However, the last radical was most likely the vowel /i/, cf. Müller (1984:143-44 and 1985) and Müller (1986). According to Müller (1984) this root ultimately goes back to a biliteral root √bi with an n-prefix. Conversely, Smith (1895:389-90) posited a bilateral base NB to w hich various third radicals such as k, ʾ and ʿ were added. 

  8. Müller (1984:144-45). The interpretation of Ugaritic nbʿm as a contracted form of nbʾ ʿm (nabaʿ ʿammu; ‘Ammu has called’) is far from certain and therefore it is also uncertain whether the root occurs in Ugaritic at all, cf. Gröndahl (1967:17). 

  9. Müller (1984) contra HAL. For an extensive list of Old South Arabic forms see Huehnergard (1999:91). 

  10. See CAD NI and AHw II. 

  11. Emar 373:97’, Arnaud (1987:353, 360); Emar 379:11-12, Arnaud (1987:375); and Emar 383:10’, Arnaud (1987:377). The ration list is Emar 406:5’, Arnaud (1987:402-03). 

  12. Arnaud (1986:385-86); the tablet on which this variant is attested is Msk 74286b:47’. 

  13. Fleming (1993a; 1993b ; 1993c and 2004) and Huehnergard (1999). Pentiuc (2001:111-13) sides with Fleming. Torczyner (1931:322); Jepsen (1934:10); Guillaume (1938:112-13); Albright (1940:231-32, 332); Würthwein (1950:24); Lindblom (1958:102); Dhorme (1959:xi-xiii); Rendtorff (1959:796); Mccarter (1980:99); Huehnergard (1999); Jeremias (2003:1694) and Fox (2003:192-93) opt for a passive understanding of נביא. An active understanding is defended by König (1882:71-78); Smith (1895); Davidson (1903:83-84); Brockelmann (1908:§138); Kittel (1925:329); Dürr (1926:3-4); Junker (1927:36); Eichrodt (1933:206); Smith and Irwin (1941:3-4); Haldar (1945:109, esp. n.2); Meek (1950:150); Buber (1956:135-36, 218-19); Fenton (1997:34-35). Ramlot (1972:922) remains agnostic as to whether the form should be understood as an active or passive, but appears to be leaning toward an active interpretation, while Mánek (1962); Jeremias (1976:7); Wilson (1980:137) and HAL, 625 (=ET HALOT 662) lean toward a passive interpretation. Von Rad (1958:21-23); Johnson (1962:24 n.5); Shepherd Jr. (1962:896-97); Jassen (2007:26) remain agnostic and deny the use of etymological information for the semantics of נביא

  14. This equivalence is common in lexical lists also in Babylonia, Müller (1984:143). 

  15. Huehnergard (1999:91); Müller (1984:143); Jeremias (1976:7); Mánek (1962); HAL, 622; HALOT, 659; Rendtorff (1959:796); and Tawil (2009:231-32). 

  16. Görg (1982; 1983; 1985 and 1986). For the Egyptian see WÄS ii:43; Ebbell (1938:25-26); Grapow and Erichsen (1940-55:ii, 346) and Von Deines and Westendorf (1961-62:I, 455). 

  17. Gesenius, TPC, 838a; Kuenen (1877:42-45); Duhm (1922b:81); Hackermann (1934:42) and Plöger (1951). Jeffers (1996:82) quotes Kuenen and reconstructs a root √nby with the meaning ‘bubble up’, by which she presumably means the root √nbʿ

  18. This has led many to believe that the services of נביאים were available to the paying public, Briggs Curtis (1979) and Lindblom (1962:71). The idea that certain bi-radical roots were extended by the addition of a נ is defended by Müller (1984:144-45). 

  19. Land (1868:170-75) and Pfeiffer (1947:15). This is explicitly rejected in Johnson (1962:24 n.5). 

  20. While it could be argued that the noun קֶשֶׁר is the subject here, the plural verb-form indicates that the nomen rectum, נְבִיאֶהָ is the implied subject. 

  21. See n. 20 above. 

  22. See n. 20 above. 

  23. For the rendering of פחז, ‘to be, act treacherous’; see De Hoop 1997; 2023. 

  24. Where the Targums offer different renderings I will make this clear, as e.g. the case of Exod 7:10. 

  25. Ms. Or. 2363 of the British Museum has simply נביא here. 

  26. According to Sperber, the text in the Biblia Regia from Antwerp has נבי instead of ספר

  27. The two manuscripts are British Museum MS. Or. 944 and Ms. Solger no. 2 of the Stadtbibliothek in Nürnberg. 

  28. Jepsen (1934). See the more careful assessment in Johnson (1962:9). 

  29. Jepsen (1960). Jepsen’s more formal approach was prefigured by Knobl (1872:76); Box (1908:50); Hylander (1931:53-66); Reynolds (1935) and, to some extend, Bentzen (1944). See also Gunneweg (1959:102-03); Kaiser (1960:81); Heschel (1962:509); Vogt (1967); Rendtorff (1968:804); Falk (1969); Wildberger (1980:317-18); Blenkinsopp (2000:238-39); Fischer (2002:194-96); Watts (2005:150); Gafney (2008:104-05) and Williamson (2010). Dillmann (1890:79); Duhm (1892:56); Marti (1900:82); Whitehouse (1905:138); Thomson and Skinner (1910:29); Gray (1912:144); Hölscher (1914:125, 196); Skinner (1915:72); Duhm (1922a:79); Feldmann (1925:100); König (1926:9-10); Proksch (1930:130); Kissane (1941:97); Eising (1970:75); Fohrer (1974:124) and Ackerman (1998:173) are examples of scholars who think the anonymous woman bears the title prophet only as Isaiah’s wife. Herntrich (1957:140-42) translates female prophet but does not comment on the issue. Von Orelli (1887:39-41) and Clements (1980:95) grant the woman a prophetic role as part of Isaiah’s family who all take part in the physical manifestation of his message. Hempel (1936:32) simply translates ‘Prophet(in)’. Delitzsch (1889:152) does not specify either, but the way that he refers to the woman simply as Isaiah’s young wife (‘seine[] junge[] Frau’) implies that he regards the title as conferred on her because she is Isaiah’s wife. Grogan (1986:67) is unsure whether the נביאה is a prophet out of her own right, by virtue of the pregnancy, or whether she is ‘Mrs. prophet Isaiah’. 

  30. E.g., Schniedewind (1995:34-37); Blenkinsopp (1995:28-29; 1996:28-30); Floyd (2006:3) and Jassen (2007:27). 

  31. Fohrer (1969:224) regards the prophets as ecstatics like other Near Eastern cult-officials. 

  32. See Smend (1893:79-80); Hölscher (1914:125, 145-47); Duhm (1922b:81-82); Puukko (1935); Lindblom (1958; 1962); von Rad (1958:22-25) and Uffenheimer (1988; 1999 and 2001). On the question of the use of the title נביא in the Writing Prophets see already Jepsen (1934) and later Auld (1983a:104-05 and 1983b); Carroll (1983); Williamson (1983) and Gonçalves (2001). In reaction to Jepsen, Gunneweg (1959) emphatically states that the Writing Prophets were נביאים, but he fails to explain that the LXX of Jeremiah uses the term προφήτης so much less frequently than MT. Soggin (1987:7-9) also argues for understanding the nominal sentence in Amos 7:14 as a past tense. The question whether or not Amos was a נביא is ultimately of no importance to the semantics of the term. Wolff (1969:359-62) offers the solution that using the verb הנבא does not make one into a נביא. In a careful piece Vawter (1985) argues that while Amos and Hosea themselves did not bear the title נביא it had been adopted for prophets by the seventh century, while the LXX refined the terminology by adding the term ψευδοπροφήτης (‘false prophet’). 

  33. Jacobi (1920:5-6); Lofthouse (1924); Haeussermann (1932:10-11); Jepsen (1934:5-10); Rendtorff (1959:797-99) and Parker (1978) take both niphʿal and hitpaʿel to mean ‘to be in, or to fall into a possession trance.’ On the question see now also Adam (2009). In contrast Wilson (1980:136-38) takes the hitpaʿel to mean simply ‘to act like a prophet’ as there are passages that do not support the meaning ‘to be ecstatic’. 

  34. Neher (1981:22) states that ‘dans le Livre d’Amos, l’emploi des trois termes se fait avec une indifference parfaite’. 

  35. Mowinckel (1923). Gunneweg (1959:81-97) emphatically argues for the link of cultic prophets with נביאים. All relevant lexicon entries also affirm the existence of cult-prophets but few of them link this to the term נביא as does Koch (1996:482-84). Petersen (1976:55-96) argues that given the title and status of the temple singers by the time of the Chronicler, they should be regarded as the inheritors of classical prophecy, against which see e.g. Williamson (1982:165-67) who argues that they stand in the same tradition but that their function is to play instruments and sing rather than to prophecy in the strict sense. 

  36. See, e.g., von Rad (1930:113-15); Haldar (1945); Johnson (1962; 1979); Gese (1963); Tournay (1991:57-68) and Hilber (2005). Against this idea see de Vaux (1960:249-52). 

  37. On prophecy in Chronicles see Welch (1939:42-54); Rudolph (1955:170-71); Willi (1972:216-29); Newsome (1973); Petersen (1976:55-96); Seeligmann (1978); Weinberg (1978); Micheel (1983); Tournay (1991:34-45); Kleinig (1993:148-57) and Beentjes (2001). 

  38. Winckler (1906:23-24) followed by Erbt (1909) with a first negative reaction by König (1907) and again König (1926:10-11). 

  39. Junge (1937:17 n.75). The same view is taken up by Elliger (1938) who is followed by Winton Thomas (1946). 

Semantics of Ancient Hebrew Database